Mizo lemchan tobul

MIZO LEMCHAN ṬOBUL

Lalsangzuali

Lemchan thawnthu chu a taka chan theih tura thawnthu kalhmang felfai taka remkhawm, thu emaw hla emaw hmanga remkhawm thlap a ni a. Awmze nei taka ziah a ni. Lemchan han tih mai hian a lemchan ziah(play) ringawt piah lamah thil ṭul tam tak a la awm zel a. Inbiakna(dialogue) te, a chang tur(character) te, chantual(stage) leh a channa inpui(threatre) te hi an pawimawh vek mai a ni.

January ni 11, 1894-ah Zosap Missionary pahnih, Pu Buanga leh Sap Upate Mizoramah rawn kalin chanchin ṭha an rawn hril a. Mizote chu kristianah min rawn siam ta a. Hawrawpte min siamsakin thuhlaril hmasawnna turin theihtawp an chhuah a. An thiltih chhuanawm tak avangin Mizo zingah kristian ṭhahnem tham tak an awm hnu, kum 1903 aṭang phei chuan kum tin Krismas an hmang thei ta hial a ni.

Krismas vawi 10 an hmanna chiah kum 1912-ah kohhranin ropui deuh hlekin ruai a buatsaih a, ruai an ṭheh zawhah lemchan an chhuah ta a, hei hi Mizorama lemchan hmasa ber a lo ni ta a ni. He lemchan thu ziaka lo chhinchhiahtu chu Lianhmingthanga hi a ni a. A ni hian ‘1912 KRISMAS HMAN DAN’ tiin a lo ziak thlap mai a. He a thuziakah hian a la kal ve lote chu kal ve turin uar takin a sawm a ni.

Lemchan chu uar chhoh deuh deuh a ni a. Mizoram hmuntinah an lo tui pui ta a. Mahse, kristianna nen a inremlo anga ngaiin hlamchhiah a lo ni leh ta zawk a. Chuti anga a lo reh tak duakah chuan mipuite khawharna chu a lo nasa ta hle a. Mite thinlung lamah intihhlim chakna a nung reng bawk si a. Chutih lai tak chuan Zofate tana sulsutu pawimawhte chuan ke an lo penchhuak ta a ni.

A hmasa lama kan tarlan tawh angin Mizo lemchan pawh hi kristian sakhua avanga bul inṭan a ni a. Mizoramah kum 1903 aṭangin krismas an hmang ṭan ve a, kum 1912 ah chuan zan lamah intihhlimna an siam a, chutah chuan Lemchan zia-rang tel, “SAP MI KHUAL LEH ṬAWNG LETLING TU”, “KRISMAS HRIA LEH HRE LO”, “KRISTIAN LEH KRISTIANLO INBIAKNA”, “SAP PUTAR LEH MOSOLMAN PUTAR LEM INBIAKNA”, “KHASI DIALOCH (INBIAK NA)”, “MIZO LEH VAI IN-THUAM DAN SHAWI SHEL SHAK NA VE VE”, “BORSAP LEM LEH THU CHHIA NEI TU 2 LEH RAHSI LEM CHANG BE te chu an lo chang a. Heng lemchan zia-rang mipui ennawm atana chan te hi lemchan kalhmang deuh vek niin a lang.

A chunga lemchan kan tarlan takah khian lemchan thawnthu ruangam (plot) te, a changtu (character) te, inbiakna (dialogue) te a nei kim biai a. Amaherawh chu Mizo Lemchan chuan ṭhan lam pan mek laiin, kum 1919-a Harhna vawi thumna lo thleng chuan Mizoram pum a nghawr tak avang chuan lemchan leh fiamthu lam te, inngaihna lam hlate chu kalsanin, an lo thlauhthla ta a. Lemchan chu intihhlimna leh nuih dur durna lam chi anih avangin khawvel thil anga ngaiin, Biak in aṭangin an theh chhuak ta a ni. Chuta ṭang chuan Lemchan chu kohhran thil angin a kal thei ta lo va, vantlang leh mi tin mi tang huam(secular) thil anga ngaih a ni ta a. Chuti anga Lemchanin hun khirh tak a tawn chhoh mek lai chuan ruahṭham loh leh tharlam tak tak mi tharin an rawn siam ve nual hlawm a. Chu’ng zinga langsar zual te chu lo thlir ta ila:

1.CH.PASENA (1893-1961): Ch.Pasena chuan Mizo lemchan tlakhniam lam pan ruai ruai chu, a rawn hnuk chhuak ta ti ila a dik mai awm e. Kum 1893-ah Khamliana khua Lunglengah a lo piang a, a hming dik tak chu Chawngnghilhlova a ni. A naupan laia an koh fiamna Pasena tih chu a pu hlen ta a ni. Kum 5 mi lek anih laiin a nuin a thihsan a. Pu Thanga sikul, Khawrihnimah A AW B a zirlaiin Pu Zosaphluia’n a khawngaih a, Aizawl lamah a la chho ta a. Zosapte thlazar hnuaiah seilianin sap ramah pawh kum khat vel lai a awm avangin sap nunphung pawh tam tak a hria a. Mizorama lemchan boruak a reh deuh ṭhuap laiin a ni hian lemchan chu a rawn thar thawh leh ti pawhin kan sawi thei ang.

Ch.Pasena hian a thluak a hmang thiamin a fing a. Khatih hun laia mite rilru sukthlek leh an rilru mil tawk angin a kaihruai thiam hle bawk a. Lemchan lamah midangte a chherchhuak thiam hle bawk. Hei hian mi bik chungchuang tak a nitih a tarlang thei awm e. Mizo lemchana sulsutu pawimawh tak a nih avangin ‘A pioneer of Mizo Dramatise’ tih pawh a phu hle a ni. Ama kutchhuak lemchante chu hengte hi a ni:

1).Heroda Chawimawina (1925)

2).Sailoka (1926)

3).Fapa Tlanbo (1927)

4).Tinreng Daih Khawl (1928)

5).Ransa Khawmpui (1929)

6).Rorelna (1933)

7).Khualbuk mi a (1933)

A tam zawk hi chu Bible thawnthu behchhan a ziak a ni hlawm. Ch.Pasena hi Mizo lemchan chanchin leh ṭhanchhohnaah hmun pawimawh tak luahtu, kan hriatreng tawh tur a ni. Ch.Pasena ṭhuihruaite zinga mi pawihmawh pahnih chanchin tawite leh an kuthnu te lo thlir leh ila.

II.LALKAILUIA (1901-1954): Reiek lal fapa lalkailuia hi lemchan lama tui tak niin, Ch.Pasena hnua lemchan rawn chhunzawmtu a ni a. Ch.Pasena ṭhuihruai a lo nih tawh avangin a zeizia pawh a man hle a, Lalkailuia hian hmanlai Mizo thawnthu (folklore) lam hmanga lemchan buatsaih a rawn ching hmasa a, lemchan hmasawnna kawng sialtu pawimawh tak pakhat a ni. A lemchan buatsaihte chu-

1)Tualvungi leh Zawlpala (1934)

2)Liandova te unau (1935)

3)Puithiam leh Salu lam (1937) te an ni.

Vanduaithlak takin Ch.Pasena te leh Lalkailuiate ho hun lai a lemchan chan ho reng reng hi, ziak a vawn ṭhat an ni ngai lova, han zir chang leh chan dawn ṭum te paw’n, a huaihawttu  chu an pawimawh hle ṭhin a ni.

III.CHAWNGZIKA (1913- ?): Lemchan thawnthu phuah mai duhtawk lovin, a chana chan pawh Chawngzika hian a uar hle a. A hunlai hian a vanneih asiamin, Samuel Davies (1906-1994) chu kum 1937-ah Mizoram a lo chhuak a. Zosap Samuel-a hi lemchan lama mi thiam, London School of Drama aṭanga Diploma Certificate dawng pha a lo ni hlauh leh nghal a. Chawngzika nen hian inkawp chho in lemchan tam tak an lo buatsaih a ni. Zosap Samuel-a phei chuan a fanu Zosiami hming chawiin “ZOSIAMI CUP” lemchan inelna kum 1940 October ni 3 khan a lo buatsaih a. Chawngzika kutchhuak leh Zosap Samuel-a nena ṭangduna an ziah te hengte hi a ni:

1)Krista Palai (1934)

2)Kristiana Vanram Kawngzawh (1938)

3)Hausakna nun dik (1938)

4)Guthrum, King of the Danes (1938)

5)Princess Pocahontas (1940)

6)Lal fanu leh vawkpu (1934)

7)Golgotha (1973)

8)The Royal Robes (1948)

9)Rabboni – Easter Play (19480

10)Travelling Companion (1950)

11)Naamana (1950)

12)The Star of Christmas (1950)

13)Martina(1951)

14)The king’s Highway (1952)

15)Pheikhawk Siamtu (1938)

16)Mizo (1978)

IV.SAMUEL DAVIS (Zosiami pa): Ani hi Mizo lemchan ṭobula mi pawimawh tak a ni a, sawi hmaih chi rual a ni lo. Kum 1937 ah Mizoramah a lo chhuak a. Lemchan lama mithiam tak niin London School of Drama aṭanga Diploma Certificate dawng pha hial a ni. Ani hian Mizote tan hnuhma a hnutchhiah ṭha hle a. Chawngzika pawh thil tam tak a zirtir bakah, an pahnih hian thawkdunin Mizo lemchan an tihausa hle a ni.

Zosiami Pa hian a fanu hming chawiin lemchan hmanga inelna hmasa ber ZOSIAM CUP chu October ni 3, 1940-ah a buatsaih a, hei hi ṭum thum la zawn apiang neih tura ruahman a ni.

Samuel Davis(Zosiami Pa) hian Mizo lemchan ṭobul lamah hma a lo la nasa hle a. Lemchan hmasawn zelna tur atan mi ṭangkai tak a ni. Mizorama lemchan meichher, Zosapte zinga rawn chhitu pawimawh tak anih avangin Mizo lemchan chung changah chuan amah hi theihnghilh a har dawn hle a ni.

LALZUITHANGA (1916-1950): Lalzuithanga hi thawnthu phuah leh hla phuah lamah a lar ber a. Thawnthu (tawi te te telin) 17 lai a phuah hman a, hla pawh 10 dawn a phuah bawk. Lemchan thawnthu phuah leh chan lamah pawh a duai lo hle: Kum 1940-ah THE BLACK CORNER OF AIJAL IN 1999 a phuah a. Rapthlak taka tawp chi lemchan a ziah HORRIBLE chu kum 1941, October ni 17 zanah ama kaihhruaiin an chang a. Kum 1941 ah vek hian lemchan dang WESTERNERS, COHEN & KELLY AS ENTERTAINERS, TWO BIG MEN OF COOLY YORK CITY, DISHONEST CARPENTERS te buatsaihin an chang zui bawk a.Kum 1948-ah HAWAIIAN FANTASY buatsaihin an chang leh bawk.

Lalzuithanga a rawn lan rual hian lemchan buaiputu dangte pawh an lo chhuak ve phak phak hlawm a. Ramin hma asawn a, khawpuia an buaipui chu thingtlang lamah pawh an lo ching uar ve zel bawk a. Kar lovah Mizoram pum chu a dengchhuak thei ta mai a. Mipui kalkhawmna hunpui leh ni pawimawh bikah te chuan lemchan hi an telh ta zel a ni.

Ch.Pasena te, Chawngzika te, Lalkailuia te leh Lalzuithanga te ruala midang langsar ve tak mai, Dengrikhuma leh a ṭhiante ho in kum 1940 vel khan Vai Sikul ah ‘HITLER DEUHSAWHNA’ lemchan nuihzathlak tak an lo chang bawk tawh a. Kum 1946 pawh khan ‘UKIL DEPDE’ tih chu Pu MacDonald-a ṭhuihruai hnuaiah an lo chang bawk a ni.

Mizo lemchan ṭobul leh hmasawnna kawnga sulsutu hmasate leh an kutchhuak ṭhehkhat kan han tarlante hi chhutkhawl awm hma lama lemchan chhuakte a ni a. Tunah chuan chhutkhawl ngeia lemchan chhuah a lo nih ṭan thu leh mi pawimawhte, an kutchhuak ṭhenkhat nen lo bihchiang leh ila:

LALTHANGFALA SAILO (1933): Khawthlang Lungdar Lal Dohleia fapa a ni. ‘Sangi inleng’ Mizo lemchan thawnthu chhut hmasak ber lo ni ta hi, kum 1963 khan R.Vanlawma Press, Republic veng ah bu 1000 chhut a lo ni a. Tichuan, he lemchan thawnthu hi mizo ṭawnga ziak lemchan thawnthu puitling, chhutkhawla chhut chhuah leh thehdarh hmasak ber a lo ni ta a ni. Lalthangfala kutchhuak te chu:

  1. Sangi Inleng (1963)
  2. Liandova te Unau (1965)
  3. Thangliana len
  4. Kalkhama leh Lianphunga
  5. Sual Man Thihna
  6. Lawma PalaiBawngte ( Lemtesep)

LALHMUAKA(1915-2002): Lalhmuaka hi kum 1915, December ni 28 a piang a ni a, lemchan thawnthu ziak kawnga mi hmasa a ni. Ama buatsaih LEMCHAN BU-a thawnthu chi hrang paruk awmna lehkhabu chu kum 1965, October ni 28 ah chhut chhuah a ni. A kutchhuak lemchan thawnthute chu-

  1. Lo kir leh mai rawh
  2. Ranthleng mak
  3. A ni mai thei
  4. Mautam Ṭam
  5. Pathian thu nung-mizoram ah
  6. Sumdeng zu
  7. Ramthanga te chhung

H.LALSIAMA(1909-1983): H.Lalsiama hian lemchan thawnthu puitling ziak a nei lo va, mahse, lemchan tawi erawh a ziak nual a. Kum 1970-a chhuah MIZO VERNACULAR tih, ama buatsaihah chuan a lemchan ziah PA AWKHRAWL leh UKIL HLAWHTLING tih te hi a chuang a. Zirtir nei ṭha taklemchan thawnthu a ni ve ve a ni.

KHAWLKUNGI(1927- ): Khawlkungi hi Mizo hmeichhe zingah chuan Lemchan thawnthu ziak kawnga inhmang nasa ber leh inhmang lar ber a ni awm e. Kum 1927, September ni 14 khan Aizawl-a Mission Vengthlangah a lo piang a. A pa chu H.Chhuma niin a nu chu Kaii a ni. Lemchan thawnthu leh thawnthu phuah a thiam hle a, thawnthu tam tak a letling bawk.

Thawnthu chi hrang hrang a remkhawm leh a lem chan tur hrim hrim a ziak hi 37 lai a nei a. Sap thawnthu leh Mizo thawnthu behchhana siam, lemchan thawnthu a nei nual bawk. A kutchhuak lemchan thawnthu langsar zualte chu-

  1. Zawlpala thlan tlangah,
  2. Pangpar bawm,
  3. A va pawi em(1983)
  4. Monu sual(1982)
  5. Ṭhangthar nun
  6. Vurvari(1984)
  7. Krismas thilpek(1989)
  8. Drugs hlauhawmzia(1990)
  9. Kumhlui leh kum thar(1990)
  10. Dan Rangkachak(1984)
  11. Sikul Hmasawnna(1985)
  12. Krismas tak tak(1986)
  13. Man leh mual(1988)
  14. Buhfaiṭham(1989)
  15. Rawngbawlna entawntlak(1989)
  16. Phuba(1980)
  17. Rammawi kalkawng
  18. Hmuhtheih ka va duh em! (1972)
  19. Ngaihdamna lipui(1980)
  20. Eden Huan
  21. Jezebeli
  22. Nipui vanglai tawnmang
  23. Geneviv
  24. Josefa
  25. In hre lo em ni(1981)
  26. Sual man thihna(1984)

Thuhlaril lama a thawh hlawk em avang hian kum 1987 khan India ram chawimawina ropui tak Padma Shri in Literature a dawng hial a ni.   

K.SAIBELA (1935- ): K.Saibela hi Pu Thangkhuma fapa niin kum 1935, July ni 29 khan a lo piang a. Lehkha ziak leh chhiar a uarin lehkhabu ṭha tak tak a ziak tawh a ni. Lemchan thawnthu ziah kawngah pawh a theuneulo hle a, a lemchan thawnthu ziah zinga lar deuh pahnih chu-

  1. Chhura leh naa(1962) tih leh
  2. Thu a tawp e lumam(1980) tih te hi a ni.

                    K.Saibela hian lemchan theih chi thawnthu pali vel a ziak bawk a, chungte chu-

  1. Isua pian thu,
  2. Isua an khenbeh,
  3. Nakin hun-mamit thlirna(1959)
  4. Police officer leh Mizoram.

Heng bakah hian Lemtesep- Hriltea leh vai chhang zuar  tih te, Mizo inneihna(radio play) te a ziak bawk.

LIANSAILOVA(1949- ): Liansailova hi kum 1949, October ni 21 ah a lo piang a. Pu Vana leh Vanṭhuami te fapa a ni. Lemchan thawnthu ziak thiam a ni a, lemchan huaihawt vel pawh a taimain a thiam hle. Lemchan thawnthu eng’emaw zat a ziak tawh a. Chung zinga palite chu lehkhabu pakhatah a siam a. Chu lehkhabu LAWM A KIM tih chu kum 1989 khan a chhuah a a ni. A kutchhuak lemchan thawnthu ṭhenkhatte chu-

  1. Lawm a kim(1989)
  2. Duaia duai bik lo(1989)
  3. Krismas drama(1986)
  4. Tlai ngai lo pathian(1985)
  5. Beidawng mai lovin(1996)
  6. Zovi te chhung(1986)

Lemchan tawi – ‘RALTIANG’, ‘HEI NGEI HI TLAWMNGAIHNA’ tihte bakah, thawnthu awmsa aṭanga a phuahrem(dramatised) a nei nual bawk.

LALTLUANGLIANA KHIANGTE (1961- ): Zofate thuhlaril vanlaizawla arsi eng ber pakhat Laltluangliana Khiangte hi kum 1961, June ni 28 khan Saitual khuaah a lo piang a. A pa chu Tlanghmingthanga a ni a, a nu chu Darngeni a ni. A pu Rev.Liangkhaia chu Zofate zinga Mizo Academy Award dawng hmasa ber a ni a, L.Biakliana(Rev.Liangkhaia fapa) chu Mizo thawnthu(Novel) ziak hmasa bertu a ni bawk. Thlahtute’n an zir bawk a, ani pawhin kawng dang zawh bik lovin thuziak rawngbawlna, Pathian leh ram tan a thawk a ni. Thiamna lamah chuan M.A., Ph.D.,D.Litt., a ni a. Tunah hian Mizoram University-ah Professor a ni.

Lehkha chhiar leh ziak peih tak niin kum 1977 aṭang khan thu a ziak ṭan a. Sap ṭawng leh Mizo ṭawngin lehkhabu 30 chuang fe a buatsaih tawh a. Lemchan lam buaipui zualin Lemchan thawnthu 30 chuang a ziak zinga 17 zet chu chhuah a ni tawh a ni. A thuziak chi hrang hrang 700 chuang chu chanchinbu leh lehkhabu danga chhuah a ni a. Thupui zirho chi (Seminar Paper) hi 150 chuang zet a ziak tawh bawk. Chung zinga 50 chuang chu Sap ṭawnga ziak a ni a, tam tak chhuah tawh a ni.

Chhamhla hi 100 chuang fe a phuah tawh a, a hla te hi ROCHUAM(2006) tih lehkhabu ah 66 khung a ni a, THLIFIM(2001) leh lehkhabu dang 50 chuangah phochhuah a ni bawk. Sap ṭawnga chhamhla a phuah ho te pawh MIZO SONGS & FOLKTALES(2002) leh WORLD LITERATURE(2005) bu bakah lehkhabu dang leh Magazine dang dangah a lang ve zauh zauh tawh bawk.

Thuhlaril lama a kutchhuak hlu tak takte avang hian India ram chawimawina sang Padma Shri in Literature&Education chu kum 2006 khan hlan a ni a. Hei bakah hian Rastriya Lok Bhasha Samman(2003), Bharat Adivasi Samman(2005) leh Book of the Year-1997 bakah chawimawina dang dang a dawng ṭeuh tawh a ni. Lemchan lama kutchhuak a neih ṭhenkhatte-

  1. Nu leh pa bum-mahni inbum(1983)
  2. Fakite chhung(1987)
  3. Thawmmawia(1988)
  4. Thawmvunga(1989)
  5. Duhawma leh Lalfaki(1989)
  6. Hnehzova leh Rimawii(1991)
  7. Chanchin ṭha meichher(1993)
  8. Lalnu Ropuiliani(1990)
  9. Pasalṭha Khuangchera(1995)
  10. Chharmawia(1989)
  11. Zorama(1988)
  12. Chantual ennawm

Heng ho mai bak ah hian lemchan lam hawi leh zirbingna ṭhahnem tak a nei nual bawk a, chu mai chu duh tak lovin Dr. Laltluangliana Khiangte hian ‘Mizo Drama – Origin, Development & Major themes’ (1993) ah sapṭawngin a lo chhuah tawh a ni. A lemchan tam tak ah hian Mizo nunhlui, kan pi pute nun dan leh an tlawmngaihna te chu thiam tak mai in, tunlai ṭhangthar te rilru sukthlek rem tur in a rawn tar lang thiam em em a. Chu mai nilo in, ram hmangaihna leh ram vohna ( patriotism) hi a mah ah hian a nasa a ni tih theih khawpin , a lemchan ah hian thupui mumal tak neiin a hmang thiam em em a, ṭhangthar te hnenah a lemchan hmang hian heng hnamvohna leh ramvohna rilru hi a rukin a phum thiam ti ila a dik ber awm e.

Lemchan thawnthu ziaktu dang, Mizo thu leh hlaa thawnthu (novel) lama kuthnu nghah tak, James Dokhuma, C.Laizawna leh Lalengmawia Ralte te hian pahnih khat, ṭha ve tak tak lemchan an nei bawk a. Heng mi te bakah hian pahnih khat lo ziak ve kan hmuh phak langsar zualte chu- HKR Lalsangzuala, C.Lalsiamthanga, Lalchungnunga, B.Lalhriattira, R.L.Malsawma leh midangte an ni.

Mizote leh lemchan hi a inzawm tlat avangin a ṭhan pawh a ṭhang chak hle reng a. Khawvelah hmasawnna a lo lang zel a, inbiakpawhna (media) hmangin thu thar leh ennawmte kan hmu ve thei ta zel a. Radio leh Television lamah te pawh lemchan chuan hmun a chang lo thei bik lo va. Chuvangin Mizo lemchan buaipuitute pawh an pawimawh em em a ni. Mizoram mai bakah ram dang thlenga kan lemchante thehdarh a nih theih nan Mizo lemchan buaipuitu la damte hi an pawimawh ta hle a. Kan hnamzia pholang thei tur leh Mizo lemchan lo darhzau zel nan anni lo hi chu hmachhuan tur kan neilo a ni.

Kan lemchan lo hi chu Mizo hnam ziarang phochhuahna tur thil dang a vang hle a, a ṭangkai ber a tih theih hial ang. Thawnthu(novel) ah chuan a lem hmuh tur a awm ve lo va. Lemchanah chuan a nihna ang ang pholan anih avangin a chiangin a fiah em em bik a ni. Chuti ang a lo nih takah chuan lemchan buaipuitute chu kan Mizo hnamzia pholang tur leh chawisang zel tura mipawimawh berte kan ti lo thei lo a ni.

Mizoramah lemchanin bul a ṭan phat aṭangin hma a sawn chak hle a, kohhran lam aṭanga nawrna leh hriatthiam chiah lohna a awm hnuah pawh mipuite thinlungah a thi tak tak thei lo. Lemchan thar thawh leh a lo nih tak chinah chuan par chhuah zelin kan lo tui pui ta em em a, a buaipuitute pawhin hma an sawnin chin dan thar leh ṭha zawkte an rawn hmang ta zel a. Hei aia hmasawn zel tur hian tunlaia kan lemchan buaipuitute hi an pawimawh hle a ni.

Ṭhangtharte zingah lemchan hi tui pui tak tak thei turin he lama tui mite kutchhuak leh thiltihte hi Sorlam lam emaw, thuneitu leh thiltithei deuhte’n ngaihvenin nasa zawkin hma lakpui thei se a ṭha hle ang. Zirnaa lemchan chung chang zir ringawt hi a tawk lo va, zirna in leh pawnah lemchan hlutna hi a tak ngeiin kan lanchhuahtir zawk tur a ni.

 

***16112011***

Lehkhabu rawnte:

1.Khiangte,Laltluangliana. Thuhlaril (Literary Trends & History of Mizo Literature), College Text Book (Mizo) Editorial Board  Publications, Aizawl, 2nd ed., 1997.

2.Khiangte, Laltluangliana. Mizo Hla Leh Chhamhlate, L.T.L. Publications, Aizawl, 1st edtion., 2009.

3.Khiangte,Laltluangliana. Lehkhabu Ramtiam, L.T.L. Publications, Aizawl : 1993

4.Vanlallawma,C. Tun Kum Za Chhunga Mizo Hnam Puipate(1894-1994)

5.Lalauva, R. Mizorama Mi Bikte.

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