KAPHLEIA LEH A HLA THLIRNA

Paul Lalremruata

Nun tawi dam rei, kum 1910 Pawlkut thla ni 10-a piang Kaphleia Chhakchhuak hian kum 30 chhung chauh a khual zinkawng a zawh na a, Mizo literature-ah hian hum pawimawh tak a luah a, thu leh hla lama kan hmahruaitu arsi eng mawi ber pakhat a tling. Kan hnam ngaihsan rawn English hote’n Francis Bacon-a chu ‘thu-sep’ ziak kawnga hmahruaitu leh kawng sat kawtua an ngaih avangin ‘Father of English Essay’ nihna parṭhi an awrh tir a nih chuan Kaphleia pawh hian kan literature-ah he dinhmun hi luah a, ‘Father of Mizo Essay’ tia kan koh ve hi a phu hliah hliah a ni. Tin, essay huang mai bakah prose writing peng dang ‘thawnthu’ phuah kawngah pawh a ṭhangharh hma ber pakhat a ni a. Harsatna tuipui thuhmuna a chen pui ‘A NAU’ Biakliana kutchhuakin khaw eng a hmu hmasa zawk na a, literature buk lung hrang hrang hmanga han buk hian, kum 1938 October ni 4 aṭanga ziak ṭan a, 1939 April ni 4-a a ziak zawh, ‘Mizo irawm chhuak thawnthu 3-na’ tia hriat ‘Chhingpuii’ hian hlutna a pai tlem bik chuang hauh lova, finthuril phei chu a pai chhah zawk maha ngai an awm fur a ni.

Kaphleia hian kan literature-ah hian huang lian tak tak pathum Essay, Short Story (ṭhenkhatin Novel/Novelette an tih bawk) leh Poetry huangah te hmun pawimawh tak a chang vek a; dik tak chuan Sap ho thlazar hnuaia khaw eng kan hmuh tan ve dek dek chauh lai hun, a ṭhen phei chu kham huai leh sih huai hlaua an la inthawi tluk tluk lai, Sap ho ek thai darh hmasa sa an la intihtheih em em laia kan mi hmasate zinga mi Kaphleia’n, mi na-zawng chu sawi loh lehkhathiam leh a fing hmasa deuhte paw’n an la pawh phak reng reng loh, vawiin ni thlenga mi tam takin kan la man phak hauh loh ‘Literature’, chutah pawh khawvelin pur a chawkna hnar, hmasang Greek leh Latin literature te, English literature te a lo tuipui em em mai leh a inzir varna eng aṭanga kutchhuak hlu tak tak min lo hnutchhiah hi a vanneihthlakin a hlu zual ngawt mai. Thutluang huanga a kutchhuak hrang hrang zingah ‘THLIRTU’ (1939) leh ‘CHHINGPUII’ te hi chuan hriat lar a hlawh viau reng a, zirlaibuah te sengluh anih vang a ni pakhat. Chutih rualin, a prose work dang te chuan hriat a hlawh tehchiam hlawm lova; tin, la hai chhuah loh eng emaw zat, khawi hmun emaw a inphum ru a la awm ṭeuh bawk. Heng kan hnam rohlu, pulpit leh pawlitik lalthutthleng aṭanga kan auchhuahpui ṭhin thu leh hla tam tak aia dam rei tur leh mi thinlunga a thu sawi nasa thei zawk tur te hi theihtawp chhuaha zawnchhuah kan tum zel a ṭul.

Tun ṭumah hi chuan, thutluang huanga Kaphleia kutchhuak hrang hrang te chu bihchiangin kan thlur hman dawn lova, a hmangaih Zoram leh Zofate’n kan hmelhriat loh zawkna lam; hla huanga a sulhnu leh kutchhuakte, hriat lar ni lem si lo hla hrang hrang te kan bel chiang thung ang. “Kaphleia hla phuahtu” (Kaphleia, the Poet) chu tu nge maw a lo nih chiah le?

HLA PHUAHTU LEH HLA LETLINGTU :

A sulhnu hlui bakah, amah hmu pha, kawm pha leh hre chiangte ṭawngkam aṭangin Kaphleia hi ‘mihring thinlunga literature ṭha tiahna tura leiṭha pawimawh lutuk lunglenna/ lungnona’ nei nasa mi a ni tih kan hre thei a. Tin, a dairi (diary) aṭangin rinhlelh tur awm hauh loin literature lama a tuizia leh a theih leh thiam ang tawk tawka a thai hnawk nasat ve theihzia kan hmu chiang hle bawk. Heng a sulhnu hlui kan hmuh leh hriat theih hrang hrang aṭanga HLA lama Kaphleia kutchhuak, tun dinhmuna kan hriat theih te chu :

1.Tlanglam Zai (Bawichhuaka nena an ziah (February 25, 1933)
2.Come, Birdie come… – sap hla lehlin (February 21-23, 1938)
3.Ka thinlung Isua hnenah – sap hla lehlin (May 19, 1939)
4.Vaihlo hla – kaihlek (September 14, 1939)
5.Nowell – sap hla lehlin (November 20, 1939)
6.Once in Royal David’s City – sap hla lehlin (November 21, 1939)
7.Christmas Awake – sap hla lehlin (November 30 – December 1, 1939)
8.Pi Thari hla (December 22, 1939)
9.KA NU HMANGAIHNA (December 22, 1935)
10.KA NU HMANGAIHNA AW NEM CHU – sap hla lehlin (1935)
11.ZORAM NUAM (January 25, 1936)
12.NGHILH NI AWM THEI ANG MAW..! (1936)
13.HUN LEH KUM TE AN RAL ZELA (1936)
14.KAN RUN KHAWHAR (November 29, 1937)
15.DAM TAKIN (1938)
16.ṬHAL (January 19, 1939)
17.ZORAM, KA RAM (January 25, 1939)

(Hawrawppui-a chhutkai zawng hi tun dinhmuna kan hmuhchhuah theih chin a ni)

Tun ṭumah hian, heng Kaphleia kutchhuak hla, tun dinhmuna kan hmuh theih te hi ka’n bel chiang dawn a ni a, kan luh thui hmain kan literature-a ‘Poetry’ chungchangah hian han pakai zawk ila. Zofate nuna bu khuar thuk em em, a tel lova eng mah kan tih theih loh HLA hian he ti khawpa min luah hneh chung hian kan literature-ah erawh chuan hnam dang te ang lo takin, hla peng chi hrang hrang hian an hum tur ṭheuh an la luah fel lo hle a, ‘HLA’ chu ‘hla’ a nih tawp avangin hla ziarang hrang hrang chham mi, hril chi, a thluk nei (solfa) leh rimawi nena sak chi, chham zuah zuah chi etc. te hi huang hran hrana thliar fel lova, “HLA’ huangah kan khung pawlh vek avang hian kan tal buai a; hnam dang, a bikin English hote chuan fel thlapin ‘POETRY’ huang an nei a, chu huanga seng luh tur chin leh chin loh an nei fel thlap a, literature peng hrang hrang zinga thuk leh ril bera ngaih hial Poetry ropui tak tak an lo dinchhuak a, an critic leh poet ril tak Matthew Arnold-a phei chuan, “Sakhua hi l0 tlusawp chhe vek pawh nise Poetry hian a thlak theih reng” a ti duh hial.

Keini dinhmunah chuan thil hi a la khirh ṭalh mai a, ‘Poetry’ hi ‘Hla’ tia kan lehlin a, kan hriat leh pawm chhung chuan kan eng hla mai pawh hi poetry huanga tla an ni vek a, ‘Poet’ pawh ‘hla phuahtu’ kan tih a la ṭul reng. Hei vang hian, Awithangpa, Hrawva, Biakliana, Patea, Kamlala, Vankhama, Rokunga, Zikpuii pa, Lalzova, Valzotea, James Dokhuma etc.te hi poet an ni vek mai a, Song composer ropui Rokunga lah sawrkar leh rampum huap meuhin ‘Poet of the Century’ atan kan lo thlang thul. Chutih laiin, kan ṭhangthar zinga ‘poetry’ ziaranga hla phuahtute chuan poet anga hriat an hlawh mang bar lo thung.  Ṭhangthar lungfing chin, hnampui ho Poetry tuipuia cheng pha ve china inngai, mahni tawka ‘poet’ hliah hliah Lalzuahliana, Jimmy L. Chhangte, Jeremy Zobiaka, Mafaa, Malsawmhriatzuali Jacob etc, te ho ruala Ngurthangvela, Vanlalpianga, L.Ray-a te meuh Poetry huanga an tla lut ve dawn a nih ngai chuan Shakespear, Milton, Keats, Shelley, Wordworth, Arnold, T.S.Elliot, Auden etc te leh Dolly Parton, Madonna, Ozzy Osborne, Axl Rose, Eminem, Riri etc tih vel ho te pawh English Poetry huangah an tlat za ve a ngai dawn tihna a ni a, kan khawvel chanchin hi ziak ṭhat a ngai hial awm e. Anni, kan thlang sappui mi ril ho chuan Bob Dyland leh John Lennon te takngial pawh hi ‘Poet’ ang chuan an ‘treat’ khat khawp asin; ‘Song writer’ ropui an nih erawh khawvelin a hai lova, a theihnghilh bawk lovang. He dinhmun khawlh tak mai chinfel hna hi literature lam buaipuitu kan ṭhangtharte kovah hian a innghat a, engtia tih nge kan tum le? (Ngaihtuah zui ṭheuh tum ila). Kan tun dinhmunah chuan ‘Poet ka ni’ han intih vel pawh a zahthlak lek lek mai, kan Pu Zuahliana rengin a ‘ Saruak Hlimthla’ leh ‘Lungmawl Selin’ bu te a hral thei hem hem mai..!?

Thu dangah kan han pakai ta lawk a, Kaphleia hlaah lut leh tawh ila. A chunga kan tarlan tawh angin Kaphleia hian hla chi hrang hrang a lo phuah ve nual a, pakua (9) chauh kan la hmuchhuak thei rih a. Heng zinga pakhat ‘Ka nu hmangaihna aw nem chu’ tih hi sap hla ‘My mother’s prayer’ a lehlin a ni nghe nghe. Tin, a dairi-a a chhinchhiah dan leh amah hmu leh kawm phate titi aṭangin Kaphleia hian a hla phuah tam ber hi, a hunlaia kan hla phuah thiam tam ber ang bawkin ‘thluk’ a neih tir hlawm a, a thluk leh rimawi lam suangtuah tel lova, poetry ziarang hlanga a phuah a awm bawk. A enga pawh chu ni se, tun ṭumah hian heng Kaphleia irawm chhuak (lehlin tiam lovin) hlate hi thluk nei leh nei lo thliar rih lovin, poetry huanga seng lutin, amah pawh ‘poet’ dinhmun luah tirin, kan belchiang dawn a, a duh chuan ‘poet cum song writer’ te pawh kan ti thei tho ang chu.

A tlangpui han thlirin, Kaphleia hlate hian hla phuahtu thinlung aṭanga lo luang chhuak, amah ngei a tel ve na leh a inpuanna (self expression), a tak ngeia a hmuh leh hriat bakah suangtuahna aṭanga a dinchhuah, sap hovin ‘Subjective/Personal Poetry’ an tih ṭhin ruangam a pu deuh vek hlawm. Hetiang hlate hi hla phuahtu mizia, a nun ram, duhthusam leh suangtuahna te pholanna a ni deuh ṭhin a, hei vang hian a hlate hmang hian ‘Kaphleia hi tu nge a nih?’ pawh a chhuidawn thui theih khawp mai. A hla hrang hrang zingah hian ‘Ṭhal (Spring)’ chauh hi pawn lam thil, lang thei leh thei lo pawh, hla phuahtu’n ralkhat thlir ang deuha a phuah ṭhin ‘Objective/Impersonal Poetry’ huangah a khung theih a, mahse hetah pawh hian hla phuahtu rilru (personal clement) hlimthla a la lang fiah hle tho mai. Heng aṭang hian Kaphleia’n hringnun zinkawng a zawh dan tur te, hringnun khawvel, hmuh theih leh hmuh theih loh lam thlenga a thlir dan te pawh kan hmuhpui thiam mai ang.

A HLA RUANGAM TLANGPUI :

Kaphleia hla phuah kan thlir mek hla 8 te hi tlangpuiin chang bithliah fel tak neia phuah a ni hlawm a, hla hrang hrang 4-ah a thunawn a dah tel bawk. ‘Ka nu hmangaihna’ leh ‘Nghilh ni awm thei tak ang maw’ tih hlaah te hian chang tinah leh a thunawnah tlar 4 zel a hmang a, ‘Kan run khawhar’ leh ‘Hun leh kum te an ral zel a’ tihah te pawh chang tinah (thunawn a nei lo ve ve) tlar 4 zel awmin, ‘Zoram nuam’ tihah chuan chang tinah tlar 4 zel dahin a thunawnah thar 8 lai a hmang thung a. ‘Dam takin’ tihah erawh chuan chang tinah tlar 5 zel dahin a thunawnah tlar 4 a dah teh tlat a, mahse he hlaa a tarlan duh ber, a vanglai ni leh hlim lai ni lo chuai ta chu a ui zia sawi lan nan a thunawnah, ‘Ṭhinlaiah hlui ni awm thei maw?’ tih chu vawi 2 chham chhuah/sak chhuah turin chhinchhiahna a dah thung a, awmzia a nei hle mai. Tin, a hla zinga duhawm leh romantic spirit nei ṭha chungchuang, Keats leh Shelley te kutchhuak ni maia mawi, ‘poetry’ hliah hliah ‘Ṭhal’ (Spring)-ah hian a chang hmasa berah tlar 5 a dah laiin a chang dang zawng zawngah tlar 6 a dah thung a, a chang hmasa berah hian tlar khat a phuah hmaih hrim hrim nge, a ma ‘style’ ve reng? hriat a har hle; a enga pawh chu nise, a hla mawina leh hlutna a tikiam chuangin a lang lo. Kaphleia hla ho zawng zawng zinga, Zoram pum leh Zofa zawng zawng tana ngaihhlutawm leh thu sawi ring ber ni hial tur ‘Zoram! Ka Ram!’ (O Zoram/My Darling Country) tihah hian chang 4 awmin chang tinah tlar 8 a dah a, ram leh hnam hmangaihna hla (poetry of nationalism/patriotism) kan neih zingah chuan hmahruaitu hla ropui hmasa ber a ni hial awm e.

Kaphleia hla zawng zawng hi a mal mala chik taka kan thlir chuan, a hla mal tinah hian hla phuahtu ṭhenkhat, a bikin John Donne-a leh a hote ‘metaphysical poets’ ho anga thupui inpersan leh inkarakik tak tak, inkalthelh deuh nuaia phuah a awm meuh lo, thupui ruangam din danah chuan ‘romantic poets’ ho ziarang a phawkchhuak viauin a lang a. Thupui inphaman leh inlalawn ṭha tak, a tir aṭanga a tawp thlenga inla mar ṭha tak ‘narrative structure’ in a phuah deuh vek a, hla phuahtu’n pholan a tum leh a pholan danah pawh hriatthiam har leh ulh a awm lem lo. Tin, hla phuahtute’n thupui ngaih pawimawh bik emaw pholan ngei ngei an duh te uar taka tarchhuah an duh changa an chin f0 ṭhin, hla thu thuhmun leh a tlar ngai, chang dang danga an hmang nawn ṭhin ang (repetitive structure) hi hmuh tur a awm thluah mai a, entir nan :

“Kei ka chan Zoram ka ngai bang thei lo ve/lo che” (Zoram Nuam-ah ṭum 4 a hmang)

“Aw, nghilh a har dawn mang e khuareiah” (Dam Takin-ah ṭum 2 a hmang)

‘Zoram? Ka Ram’ hlaah pawh ‘repetitive structure’ hi kan hmu thluah mai, ti ang hian….

“Zoram? Ka Ram (ṭum 2 a hmang)

“Aw, Chung Pathian (ṭum 2 a hmang)

“Pathian leh Kan Ram Tam…” (ṭum 2 a hmang)

Hetianga hla phuahtu’n hla thu ngai (poetical words/syllables/lines) a hmang nawn fo ṭhin hian awmze thuk leh ril tak a nei a, hla phuahtu rilrua hmun luah reng ṭhin, puan chhuah a chak leh duh em em thil/thupui a ni chawk. Hetiang zawnga kan thlir chuan, hlaphuahtu Kaphleia’n a ngaih pawimawh leh a mihring pui, a bikin a chipui Zofate hnena a chah duh ngawih ngawih chu eng thil nge ni le? tih chu a hlate hi chik takin han thlir la, tu dang zawh buai ngai lovin i hmu thiam kuar kuar mai awm e.

HLA-RUA POETIC DEVICES/FIGURE OF SPEECH A HMAN DAN :

Literature lama sap pui miril ho thu leh hla tui pui pha chin, an kutchhuakte pawh ching let kual ṭhin a ni a, chutih rualin Zofate’n pipu aṭanga kan inrochun hla thu mawi leh duhawm tak tak te a hre ṭha hle bawk a; poetry ziarang leh nihphung hre chungin Kaphleia hian hla a phuah ṭhin tih a hriat hle. Hla-rua hman chungchangah pawh a themthiamna tam tak hai chhuah tur a awm a; a tlangpui chauh han Chhura buh en thuak thuak ila.

Kan hlaa tehkhinna hla thu kan hman tlanglawn ber, hman leh tunah pawh dang chuang lova kan la hman zawm reng, sap hovin ‘Simile’ an vuah ‘ANG leh IANG’ te hi Kaphleia hian a hmang ṭhahnem hle a, a hla timawitu leh tinungtu ber pakhat a ni. ‘Simile’ a hman dan tlanglawn deuh deuh han tarlang ila :

“Ka nu hmangaihna par ang chuai ngai lo, Kum sul ang thar, Run ram iangin, Par ang lo vul, Kawi leng dar ang chhai, Ar ang ka vaihna tlang zawng zawng, Lam ang let, Lanu leng rothul i iang a, Lungduh dar ang tawng, I iangin ka zai ang, Hrui ang ka han dawn sei zel a, Dar ang len lai ni awm mah se, Par tlan sir va iang a, Kum sul ang lo vei riakmaw iangin kawl pawh vel ila …… etc.

Tin, thu leh hla hian ‘art’ a nih anga cheimawina hmanraw tam tak a neih zinga duhawm ber pakhat, thiam leh thiam lo kar erawh hla tak, a hmang thiamin a hman chuan mawi leh duhawm lutuk Hmehbelna/hmehbel tehkhinna, ‘Metaphor’ hi Kaphleia hian a hmang tam tehchiam lo na a, a hman chhunte chu a ṭhain a mawi thawkhat hle. Kaphleia ‘Metaphor’ langsar zual te chu ‘Run khawhar, Run hrang, Hmangaihna par, Muanna ṭhingthiang kung, Vaihna tlang, Tlang zun zam, Khua ṭhal zai, Lungngaih mittui… etc. te an ni.

Hetih rual hian ‘metaphor’ chi khat, kan Mizo Kristian hla-a a ziarang kan hmuh tam em em, romantic poets ho phei chuan an hman uar tak, thil nung lo pui nunna nei leh mihring ang maia an biak mawlh mawlh ṭhinna ‘Personification’ pawh Kaphleia hian a hmang ṭha viau mai. ‘Ṭhal’ (Spring) hlaah chuan ti hian a sawi a :

“Aw, ṭhal hmingthang awih tlak i ni
Lanu leng rothul i iang a” tiin hun (ṭhal season) chu a bia a..

‘Zoram Nuam’-ah pawh,

“I tlang chhipah siamtu fak dar a lo ri”  tih leh
“Ka theihna leh finna i tan ka pe,
I retheih, chhukchho har miten sel mah se” tih te kan hmu bawk.

Tin, ‘Zoram! Ka Ram!’ hla a ‘personification’ a hman;

“Ka muanna ṭhingthiang i ni,
Ka rinpui leh ka chhuan i ni” a han tih te pawh hi a mawiin a hlu asin aw!!

Chumai a la ni lo, ‘Kan run khawhar’ tih hla a ‘hmar tlangpui tih’ han tih te, ‘Ar ang ka vaihna tlang zawng zawng hi” a han tih a, hla-rua chi khat ‘Synecdoche’ a han hmang thiam te hi a themthiam hle a; uar lutuk tak maia thil sawi duh changa an hman ṭhin hla-rua chi khat ‘Hyperbole’ a hman dan pawh hi sawi hmaih chi a ni lo:

“Lui tin tlangtin mihrang sulhnu,
Dai ngai lova zaia chawi hnu”

“Van Lal ka sawm min hruai turin,
Rihsang liam san run ram iangin”

‘Anti-thesis’ chi khat, ‘Epigram’ lamah pawh a duai chuang lo; ‘Kan run khawhar’ tih hla a, Biakliana nena an khawsak dunna ‘inte thawveng’ chu ‘run mak, run reh leh hrang’ a nih zia uar taka a sawi fe hnua ‘Zirin lian ber, sappui sikula an zir ngai loh thil mak chhuisen loh a zir chhuahna a nih thung si zia a han sawi leh hlauh mai te;

‘Hun leh kumte an ral zel a’ tih hla a,
“Kan hlim lai ni te,
Hmana nunhlui ral ta te khan,
Keini min tibuai tawh suh se” a tih mek lai a, a hnu lawk a,

“A kimtea ka dawn chang hian,
A thar leh ṭhin lunglaiah hian” a han ti leh daih mai te hi ‘anti-thesis’ mawi tak a tling.

English poet hoten an uar leh an hla cheimawi tura an hman thiam em em, hla thu rik dan inchawih leh inzul, sap hovin ‘Alliteration’ an tih pawh hi Kaphleia hian a hmang thiamin a hmang ṭha viau lo maw! A ‘alliteration’ hman langsar ṭhenkhat hi han thlir mah teh:

“A awih lai ngaiin,
Zantiangah a hrai haw hun a chhiar…” (Ka nu hmangaihna)

“Rihsang liamsan run ram iangin
A reh, a hrang, hmar tlangpui ṭih” (Kan run khawhar)

……….

“Lungphang taka ṭhen tawh te kha
Lung duh dar ang tawng leh ila….” (Ṭhal)

‘Awih ka nuam, kan Zoram nuam” (Zoram nuam)

“Lenrual lungduh laitual nuamah” (Hun leh kumte an ral zel a)
“Lu chhum ban chhum huam a, …….

………

“Lui tin tlang tin mihrang sulhnu….” (Zoram! Ka Ram!)

Hnam pui leh fmg ho chuan “Hlla phuahtu ṭha’ tehfung pawimawh taka an neih kumkhua chu, ‘Hla phuahtu’n a hla hmanga finthuril a pho chhuah ṭhat leh ṭhat loh ngawt a ni lova, a puanchhuahna ṭawngkam (poetical words) mawi leh mawi loh mai piah lamah hla thu leh hla rua te inchawih mawi tak tak thlang chhuak a, an awmna hmun tur taka a remkhawm thiam danah a innghat thui hle Hemi kawnga Kaphleia duai loh zia chu a hlate hian a phochhuak chiang hle lo maw!

Kan Mizo hla, a bikin Kristian sakhuain a hrinchhuah hla te cheimawitu ber pakhat, aiawhtu emaw chhinchhiahna atana hman ṭhin hla-rua ‘Symbol’ hman kawngah phei chuan Kaphleia hi a themthiam thlawt a, a hla te hi a ‘symbol’ hman te hian a cheimawiin a ti duhawm takzet a ni. A symbol hman lar deuh te chu –

‘Run khawhar’ (Biakliana nena an chen dunna Durtlanga ‘inte thawveng’ sawina)
‘Fak dar’ (Pathian biakna Biak In dar sawina)
‘Muanna thingthiang kung’ (Chenna in entirna),
Riakmaw (Hmangaihtu leh ngaihsaktu nei lo, baihvai sawina)
‘Chhim thlipui” (Hringnuna harsatna leh manganna thleng ṭhin entirna)
‘Laldanga’ (Tachhip lal, Kamliana sawina)
‘Ka zua Lal’ (Pathian/Isua sawina)
‘Len ṭhin lai (Lunglenna/lungnona, khawharna sawina)
‘Van Lal’ (Pathian/Isua sawina) etc. te an ni. Symbol hman kawngah pawh Kaphleia hi a khawr lo tawp.

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