Fanu hmangaihna – Book review

‘FANU HMANGAIHNA’ THLIRNA

 Mizo Academy of Letters pawlina kum 2008-a Mizoram pum huap lemchan thawnthu inziahsiakna, Rev. Liangkhaia Prize for Drama Writing Competition-a lawmman pakhatna dawngtu, Lalfakzuala (Maf-a) ziak, ‘Fanu hmangaihna’ hi Zoṭawnga chhut leh chhuah lemchan thawnthu kan neih tawh zingah hian a chhuanawm pawl tak a tling awm e. He lemchan thawnthu hi sei ṭha tawk tak, phek 190 laia chhah, a ṭum khat nana kum 2009-a chhuah a ni.

He lehkhabu kan thlitfim a, kan thlirfim tak tak hmain, literature pawn lam thil deuh mah ni se la chhutkhawl hnuhma leh a behbawm thilte han tar lang hmasa ta zawk i la. He (tuna ka copy kawl lai) lehkhabuah hian chhut sual palh hmuh tur a tam lutuk lo nain, kan Zoṭawng lehkhabu dangte ang bawkin, mit timim tham zet chu a awm tho va. Tin, tuna kan Zoṭawng thuziak tihmelhemtu leh tichhetu ber nia ka ngaih hial ṭhin, ‘ṭ ngaihpawimawh lohna’ chu he lehkhabuah pawh hian kan hmu a ni. Hmun tam zawkah hmang tho mah se a namnul tam hle mai a, a aiah ‘t’ a hmang leh mai ṭhin a, a pawi ngawt mai. ‘|’ hi kan Zoṭawng hawrawp ata a bo pil mai loh nan thapui thawha humhim a ngai ta hial a ni tih thu ka rilrua reh hleithei lo hi he lehkhabu hian a rawn chawk tho leh a ni. Chu bakah, a phek indawt dan dik lova rem pelhsawlh palh (ka copy bikah hian) ka hmu a, chhiar tui lai a tibahlah thei hle bawk. Heng thil uluk tur hian a ziaktu mai bakah chhutkhawla thawkte an pawimawh em em a, an fimkhur tlan a ngai a ni.

Dryden-a chuan lemchan thawnthu chu, “Mihring nun phung dik tak tar lanna a nih avangin mite tihhlim nan leh mite thil dik zirtir nan a pawimawh a ni,” a lo ti a1. Saphovin didactic literature an tih ang chi, zirtir leh siam ṭhat tumna lam hawi a ni. Laltluangliana Khiangte-in, “Lemchan hi khawtlang nun nen pawh a inzawm tlat a ni. Mihring nun phung a lema changtute chan chu a hun laia khawtlang nun dan hmang a lo ni zel mai ṭhin a. Hre sa leh hre sa lem lo pawhin vantlang nun phung chu tar lan a ni ṭhin,”2 a tih pawh hi he lemchanah hian a dikzia kan hmu thei a ni. He lemchan thawnthuah hian kan tunlai Mizo nun phung sir lehlam, a ṭha lo lai hrang hrangte tar langin, chu’ng sualnate chuan kan chhungkua, kan khawtlang leh kan ram thlenga a nghawng buai theihzia kan hmu a. Chutih rual chuan chu’ng buaina lak ata kan fihlim theih dan kawng chu rilru siam ṭhatna lam (moral reformation)-ah a innghat tih leh chu pawh chu Pathianah chauh a famkim ṭhinzia min hrilh a ni.

‘Fanu Hmangaihna’ lemchan thawnthu hi Chan li-a ṭhen a ni a, Chan khat chhunga Lan awm zat erawh a inang lo zeng zung. Shakespeare-ate hun lai aṭang daih tawh khan Grik-hovin lemchan thawnthu kal phung tur an duan sa (Classical Rules)-te chu an palzut viau tawh a. Amaherawhchu, khatih hun lai pawh khan lemchan thawnthu chu chantual (stage)-a chan theih ngei a ni deuh zel tho va, chu chu an tum ber pawh a ni ṭhin. Tin, khatih hun lai khan lemchan hi an ngainain an ngai sang em em a, chan tlaka ziaktu chu an ngai sang em em ṭhin. Hun a lo kal zel a, cinema leh TV lamin kan khawvel a han run chhoh takah chuan chantuala mipui hmaa lem han chan chu a hlutna pawh a tlahniam lo thei lo va. Lemchan thawnthu chu ziak chho reng reng tho mah se sum hai luhna tham leh mite hriat hlawhna tham zet ni tur erawh chuan film script lam hawi, cinema leh TV lama chhuah theih tur hisapa buatsaih a lo ngai ta a. Chu chuan kan tunlai lemchan thawnthu phei hi chu a chiah hneh em em tawh a ni.

He lemchan thawnthu pawh hi chantuala chan han ni dawn ta se chu a buaithlak khawp ang. A chhan chu inbiakna ṭawngkam (dialogue) hi a sei em em hlawm a, hlawi fe a ngai dawn a ni. Tin, a puma han chang zo tur hian hun a duh khawpin a rinawm bawk a, a entute paw’n chawfun nena ṭhut hmun an rem a ngai hial awm e! Entir nan, Chan IV-na Lan 3-na (a Lan tawp ber) phei hi chuan phek 30 ngawt zu awh a! A Lan dang hrim hrim pawh hi a sei tlangpui hlawm. Chu ai maha he lemchan thawnthu tikhirhkhantu nia ka ngaih erawh chu mi pakhat thusawi a sei ṭha el awl hlawm lutuk hi a ni. A ziaktu hi a thu (inbiakna ṭawngkam)-ah a luang ral a, chu chuan thiltih (action) lam a namnulhtir lo thei lo niin a lang. Chu vang chuan he lemchan thawnthu hi chantuala chan lam emaw ai chuan a chhiara chhiar tur chi hrim hrim (closet drama) emaw tih mai awl a ni a, film-a siam tur pawhin ennawn leh siam rem fe a ngai ngei ang.

Thangvunga paw’n he lemchan thawnthu a thlirnaah, “(Lemchan hi) Chhiar tura ziak a nih ber ṭhin avangin dramatist-te pawhin chan ṭul aia tam thu an zam ṭhin a, a ngaihnawm belhchhah bawk nen, dramatic propriety (a tak anna) haiderin kan kurpui mai ṭhin zawng a nih hi. Chan ni se, sawi chiar dup ngai lo tur; chhiartu suangtuahna kan pawngsual a nih ber hi maw. He lemchan ngaihnawm tak pawh hi chan tur ni se, hawrawp tam fe kan hum ngei ang,”3 a lo ti ve mek bawk a, a pawmawm viau a ni.

Han zeldin dawn chuan he lemchan thawnthu innghahna hun lai hi  kum 2000 A.D. ral kai hma hret niin a lang. A hun thu hi chiang taka tar lan ni lo mah se mobile phone la lar hma thil niin a lang. A chhan chu tun (2010) hnai tak tak tar lanna chu ni se lang, heti khawpa kan hman nasatzia ngaihtuah hian mobile phone chu lang lo thei lo turah kei chuan ka ngai. Chutih rualin tunlai chanchin a tar lang nasa em em mai bawk si a, kum tam liam taa mi lah a ni thei hek lo. A ziaktu hian a ziak tunlai thiam viau a. Tunlai khawpui nun bawlhhlawh tak mai – ruihhlo te, mipat hmeichhiatna kawnga lepchiahna te, nau tihtlak te, nupui pasal laka rinawm lohna te, leh Pathian awm rin lohna te chenin kan hmu a. Chu vangin he lemchan thawnthu hi khawtlang nun emaw, politic kalhmang emaw, economic emawa thil ṭha lo lai leh hnawksak lai lemchan hmanga pho chhuahna ang chi, Problem Play 4 an tih ang chi a ni.

Tragedy kalhmangin he lemchan hi ziah a ni a. Boruak rit takin a chhiartute min uap chho tluanchhuak ṭhak a, lungngaihna leh lungchhiatna te, beidawnna leh thinurna te chuan a plot hi a zem chhuak a ni ber. Tukverh pakhat aṭanga hlimna eng a lo luh chang pawhin tukverh dang aṭangin thlipui a lo tleh lut nghal vat a, thaw han lakna tur a awm meuh lo. Hnampuiho hmanlai lemchan thawnthu huanga ­tragedy kalhmang kan hmuh ṭhinahte chuan comic relief an tih, boruak muk leh up lutuk tur chawh zangkhai nan fiamthu leh thu hlimawm dang eng emaw han zeh tel an ching viau a. He lemchan thawnthuah erawh hi chuan rilru a zangkhai hman meuh lo thung a. Kan hlimna han tem chhunte pawh a lehlamah mittui ko chhuaktu, a man sang em emte an ni.

Mihringte ngaihah chuan mi fingin an fin man an ei a, mi a erawh chuan a at man a chawi thung a; tin, mi felin a ṭhat man a tel laiin mi sual erawh chuan a awm khaw loh rah a seng thung ṭhin. Hei hi kan mit hmuh leh beng hriat ngeiah pawh a thleng dik reng reng a, chu chu khawtlang nun siam ṭhatu pawh a ni bawk. Lemchan thawnthu zir leh ziah kawnga kan pur chawkna ber ni ṭhin, Grik leh Roman te, English te drama huangah pawh heti anga a changtute’n an thiltih rah an seng ṭhin dan (dramatic justice) hi kan hmu fo va, tih makmawhah an neih ni berin a lang. Amaherawhchu, chik taka kan chhut chuan mi felten an felna lallukhum hlawh chhuak lova an tawrh hlum ṭhak chang leh mi sualte paw’n hremna tuar lova nuam chen reng renga an dam chhung hun an hman liam chang te pawh he hringnun khawvelah a awm zut tho va, sualna chi hrang hrangte hi a dinchan chang a tam viau.

Fanu Hmangaihna lemchan thawnthuah pawh hian a ziaktu’n dramatic justice chu a changtu ṭhenkhata a hman laiin ṭhenkhatah erawh chuan a hmang lo thung. Nupui pawm lai nei reng chunga zu leh nuthlawi nena tal nasa em em, Pathian awm pawh ring lo mai ni lova mahni nupui leh fanaute rinna pawh pheh thlak tum titih, pu Thana chuan chhiatna tham hremna a hmu lo va. A mizia rawn phawk fuh em emtu, a fapa Zuala lah chu a chanai tur ngawih ngawih chhiatna namen lo tak lak ata a him ta pial mai bawk si. Zuala farnu Lawmtei, zu leh sa leh mipa nena han fawr vel nuam ti em em ṭhin lah chu Pathian hnena a inlamlet hnuah chuan a nun a tluang ta em em bawk a. Mahse, heng mite’na chhanhim leh chhanchhuah an tawh chhan hi pu Thana ‘fanu hmangaihna’ zara chung lam ngaihdamna an chan tak vang a ni. Chutih rualin a changtu dang, nuthlawi leplerh Siami te, dik lo taka pu Thana phiarrutu pu Vela te, an thurualpui pu Dula te erawh chuan an sualna rah an seng hlawm a ni.

Drama hi thawnthu phuahchawp a taka chethmanga entir theihna hmanraw pawimawh a ni a5. Closet drama tih lohvah chuan lemchan thawnthuah reng reng kan ni tin ṭawngkauchheh hman ang chi hi hman ni se la, a fuh berin a lang. Ṭhenkhatin hei hi hre lo emaw zawm duh lo emawin ṭawngkam nalh leh puithu deuh hlek te, thuziak deuh chauhva kan leklam ṭhin ṭawngkam te kan hmang leh mai ṭhin. Chuti ang ṭawngkam, kan ni tin inbiaknaa kan hman zen zen lem lohte chu lemchan thawnthu tichhetu a ni hial ṭhin a, chan a tihrehawm mai ni lovin a ngaithlatute leh thlirtute tan pawh ngaihnawm leh hmuhnawm a tling mawh ta ṭhin a ni. |awngkam thluaithlum chiam chiam hi kan Zoṭawng lemchan thawnthuhovah hian kan la ching angreng viau va, a zawng a za chuan ni lem lo mah se khawi maw laiah kan zep leh hram ṭhin.

Maf-a ziah, Fanu Hmangaihna lemchan thawnthuah pawh hian inbiakna ṭawngkam a hman fuh tawk loh chang a tam mai. A chang chuan thawnthu (fiction) lama inbiakna ṭawngkam an hman dan nen te pawh a inang viau. Sawi tawh ang khan mi pakhat thusawi hi a reiin a sei thei hle a, a thlirtute awi mu tham zet a awm nawk a, a zirtute tan pawh han kalkahlen mai chakawm lai a awm ṭeuh bawk. Lemchan thawnthua inbiakna ṭawngkam kan chheh dawn reng rengin action leh theme ṭanpui tur khawp lek lek, thu tawi, fun kim em em si ni thei se a duhawm hle a. Hei tak hi a ziaktu zalen lohna leh themthiam a ngaihna lai chu a ni. Amaherawhchu, ziaktu themthiam dangte ang bawkin Maf-a pawh hian a changtute mize milin ṭawngkam hmantir a thiam thawkhat viau a, hei hi a ṭhatna pakhat a ni.

Mizote hian kan thu leh hla reng rengah hla thu leh hla chang han zeh tel hi kan ching viau a. Thu leh hla ṭhuang (genre) dangah chuan chuti anga hla han zeh tel chuan timawiin tihlu ṭhin mah se a lova luata kan telh thla na zen mai erawh hi chu a ninawm deuh ṭhin. A taka chan tura buatsaih lemchan thawnthuah ngat phei chuan hla han tar par tuar mai hi a fuh lo ṭhin a, chan leh chhiar a tibuaithlak mai mai a ni. Kan Zoṭawng lemchan thawnthu dangah chuti anga hla rawlh kan chin viau lai chuan Fanu Hmangaihna -ah erawh hi chuan thu tluanglam bak hmuh tur a awm lo va, hei pawh hi a fuhna lai niin ka hria.

Amaherawhchu, Chan IV-na Lan 2-naa jail chhunga Zuala leh Mamuani an inhmuh ṭuma Zuala Bible chhiar lai thu leh Mamuani ṭawngṭaina thu a rawn tar lang tel lo erawh hi chuan an inbiakna ṭawngkam (dialogue) dang a tihmelhem deuh a ni. Lemchan thawnthuah chuan thusawi leh thusawi inkara ṭawngṭaina thu emaw lehkha chhiar lam emaw a tlakzeh chuan, chu chu a tluantlinga tar lan hram ni ṭhin se la a duhawm. Tin, Chan III-na Lan 2-naa pu Thanan kawngka sula a nupui a mak laia Mabiakan thu a lo pawtchat ve zung zung mai te hi a zia lo deuh em aw a tih theih a. Chan IV-na Lan 1-naa Dr. Maduhan a damlo enkawl lai Siami hnena, “Zep lovin sawi ta ila. Mihring lamah chuan bei a dawng tawh a ni a…” a han ti mai te hi a doctor fel ṭawngkam lo deuh zawng a ni.

Aristotle-a chuan a lehkhabu The Poetics­-ah a ruhrel leh ruangam (plot) hi lemchan thawnthuah chuan a pawimawh hmasa ber a, a changtu (character) din chawp erawh hna hnuhnung zawk niin a ngai a6. A ruangam kan din fuh chuan a thawnthu inlaklawn chhoh dan pawh a ṭha duh viau a, a buai mawh a, a felfai viau ṭhin. Fanu Hmangaihna pawh hi plot ṭha tak duan sa hmanga ziah ni ngeiin a lang a, a ngaihnawm em em a, kan tum loh lam takah a vawrtawp min thlenpui a ni.

Kan tunlai khawtlang nun bawlhhlawh tak tak pho lan nan leh hlimna leh damna famkim chu Pathian chauh a ni tih tar lan nan sual leh ṭha ineptir ran zelin a thawnthu ruhrel chu a rem chho va. Chhungkaw pakhat nun a khalh fal chho va, chutah chuan nun dan leh khawsak dan inang lo chu hlawm hnihah a ṭhen phawk a. Christopher Marlowe-a lemchan thawnthu ngaihnawm tak mai, tragedy an tih ang chi bawk, Doctor Faustus thawnthua a changtu ber Faustus-a nuna kan hmuh, ‘sual leh ṭha inbeihna’ chu he lemchanah pawh hian a plot tingaihnawm tura a theme pawimawh ber a ni.

A bul aṭanga a tawp thleng hian chu ‘sual leh ṭha’ chu a inep chho ngar ngar a. Pu Thana leh a fapa Zuala chu an inchhungkhura buaina chawk chhuak deuh rengtu an nih piah lamah kohhran (K|P) dodal zawng leh a hmusit zawng hlirin an tal chho va, pu Thana phei chuan Pathian thu awih chu sawi loh a awm tak tak pawh a ring lo hial a. Zuala pianpui unau dang, Mabiaka leh Lawmte-i te, pu Thana nupui pi Mawii leh an awmpui nula Mamuani te hian an phak tawkin Pathian rawng chu bawl ve mah se an tum ber, Pathian ṭih chhungkua nih chu an puitlin thei ngai lo va. Chu mai pawh ni lovin nuthlawi Siami vangin an chhungkua chu an awmho thei ta lo va, pu Thanan a nupui leh a fate, Mabiaka leh Lawmte-ite chu an ‘pute’ inah an awm a ngai ta hial a. Pu Thanate pafa chuan ruihtheihthil an tlan nasa ta viau va. A thawhpuite hekna avangin pu Thana chu a hna aṭangin an suspend a, a nupui Siami lah chuan a chhuahsan ta mai bawk a. Zuala lah chu ruihhlo khawih mai pawh duh tawk lovin a zawrh lamah a ramṭang chho ta hial bawk a. A tawpah chuan police lamin an nangching ta a. A mangang rilru buaiin police pakhat a that a, mathei lova an man dawn avangin amah hmangaihtu Mamuani chuan a thlarau a chhanchhuah theihna tur a nih ringin a aiah a inpe ta zawk a, chu chuan Van kawngka a deng hawng ta a ni.

A plot bel pum tura character a din chhoh dan hi a fuh viau a. Pu Thana nun phung te hi awihawm lo angin lang dawn dawn mah se kan tunlai khawtlang nun han thlir hian a dik lohna leh awman lohna a awm lem lo. Mipat hmeichhiatna leh ruihhlote hi kan ram leh hnam tihmelhem a, kan Kristianna tithang mawi lo em emtute an ni a, chu chu a changtute nunah a rawn nem kai a ni. Hmangaihna leh hmaizahna tlachham khawpa pu Thanate pafa an han tal bawraw chiam mai te hian a changtu dangte nun phung pawh chiang lehzualin min tar lansak tel nghal a ni.

He lemchan thawnthua a changtu ber, Mamuani character a han din chhoh dan hi a ropui viau mai. Lei mihringte sual vanga boral mai tur phal lova min chhandam nana mahni ropuina pawh tilang duh lova a thilsiam mihringte zinga Isua a rawn intatlut ang mai kha a ni. Awmpui fel tak leh piangthar ṭha tak satliah emaw kan tih, a nihna dik tak kan lo tinzawn thiam reng reng loh, Mamuani chu a tawpah chauh a nihna dik tak chu kan hre chhuak thei a. Pu Thanate chhungkuaa a rawngbawlna chu a hlen chhuak zet a, a luhlul ber leh sual bera kan ngaih pu Thanan chhandamna a han chang ve ta maw tih veleh ‘fanu hmangaihna’ chuan a vawrtawp a thleng ta a, a chhungkaw thar dina cheng ve hman ta lo chuan a thlarau a thlah ta nghal a ni.

Critic tam tak chuan Mamuani character hi han zir chiang se la chu a changtu mah mah an tih ka ring. A lemchan hming koh a nihna ang hian Mamuani character hi a ropui viau a. Ama nungchang hrim hrima a dawhtheihna te, a chhelna te, hmangaihna a ngahzia te, a inngaihtlawmzia te hi chu mi ṭha leh fel nih phung hrim hrim a ni a, a la awmang deuh. Mahse he lemchan thawnthu hi a phek kan han keu phei zel a, a vawrtawp a lo thlen chhoh dawn hnaih leh a thlen lai mek erawh hi chuan a ziaktu hian Mamuani hi a dah chungnung ta deuh elo maw chu aw a tih theih reng a ni.

A plot-a hruai lut tura Mamuani a han khalh tak tak mai hi chu he lemchan hian a tak anna a hloh phah lek lek niin a lang. Tan inah Zuala tawrh ai tuar a, hliam na tak a tawrh aṭang hian rei tak dam turah pawh a inngai tawh lo va. A na leh a tawrh dan han en hian a tum ram (mission) thleng tura a han harh fim chho thei reng mai hi a awihawm lo lek lek a, police lamin an ngaihsak lo lutuk mai hi a awihawm lo lehzual. Vai film ilo vela tute emaw bula a changtu tu emawten thuchah hnuhnung an sawi zet hmaa an boral thiang lo ang deuh mai hi a ni. Hei hi critic-te mit timimtu a nih ngei ka ring. A ziaktu hian a plot tipum turin a main character, Mamuani hi rem leh rem lovin a khalh hram hram ni berin a lang. Thih suala a lum mek laia a bung leh changa ṭhen tham zet thu hnuhnung a han chham chhuak per per mai te hi a fuh lo hle a, a thuhretu, Dr. Maduha hian a chanchin hi sawisak ta vek zawk se la a fuh viauin a rinawm.

Tin, Mamuani tawrh dan han sawi takah chuan tan ina police-ten an sawisa nasa lutuk hi chu a awihawm lo lek lek bawk. Mipa chu ni se a awihawm thei deuh ang a, Mamuani hi hmeichhe luhlul leh hram tlahawlh em em mai chu ni bawk se la awih luih dan a awm bawk ang. Mahse hmeichhe nunnem lutuk khati tak maia an han sawisa mai kha chu a ziaktu hian a ti mah mah em aw a tih theih a. ‘A tak anna’ hi fiction leh drama bikah a pawimawh chhung chuan he thil thleng hian chuk a hlawh maithei a ni. A tak ramah zawng ni se police-ten khati khawpa hliam tuar ta chu an ngaihsak ngeiin a rinawm a, ngaihsak lo ni ta ngat se chu Mamuani lainattuten kawng an zawh loh vek pawhin thawm chu an neih leh deuh hakin a rinawm. Hei hi kan Mizo tunlai khawtlang nun pakhat chu a ni si a.

A ziaktute tihsual palh nge ni a, an chin dan (style) ve reng reng tih pawh hriat loh, Zoṭawnga ziah lemchan thawnthu ṭhenkhatah chuan mi pakhat thusawi, mi dangin an rawn chhawk hmaa stage direction (bracket chhunga hawrawp awna character-te awm dan leh thiltih sawina) a tlakzeh zeuh avang maia a thusawitu hming a zawna tar lan nawn leh hi a ni. Entir nan, phek 45-naah chuan Lawmte-i thusawi (soliloquy) kan hmu a. Stage direction a han tlakzeh tak mai avangin a hnuai chiahah ‘Lawmtei : …’ tiin a changtu ngai vek chu a rawn ziak nawn leh a. Hei hi a ṭul reng reng lo va, character dang tu emaw thusawi a rawn tlakzeh loh chuan ziah nawn loh tur a ni.

Lemchan thawnthu zirna huanga tunhma lama an uar em em ṭhin, chantuala chan turah phei chuan ṭul leh tihmakmawh ni ṭhin chu Three Unities hi a ni a. Fanu Hmangaihna-ah pawh hian chu chu kan hmu a ni. A setting (place) hi chantual khata lantir theih a ni a; a hun (time) thu-ah pawh darkar 24 chhunga thil thleng anga lantir theih a ni bawk a; tin, unity of action chungchangah pawh he lemchan hi tragedy tui pawlh dal loh a nih bakah a plot pawh a hlawm ṭha em em a ni.

Fanu Hmangaihna lo pawh hi Maf-a’n lemchan thawnthu dang eng emaw zat a ziak tawh a. Chungte pawh chu ngaihnawm leh belhchian dawl tak tak an nih a rinawm a, kan thu leh hla tihausatu leh kan Mizo lemchan khawvel tichangtlungtu pawimawh tak an nih hlawm ngei ka ring tlat a ni. Kan Zoṭawng thu leh hla hi kawng engkimah a la hausa tawk lovin a la nep angreng viau a, a tam lam (quantity)-ah leh a ṭhat lam (quality)-ah nasa taka ṭan lak a ngai em em a. A bikin hlahril leh lemchan thawnthu lam hi kan ṭan lak lehzualna lai tur a ni. Engle khawle, he lemchan pawh hian kan thu leh hla tihhausak kawngah phur khat zawng a keuh ve ngei e.

A tawp berah chuan, Fanu Hmangaihna lemchan ngaihnawm leh lungkuai tak mai hi thu leh hla ngainatu leh lemchan lam tuipui mite tan chuan chhiar leh zir manhla tak a ni a. A ngaihnawmna piah lamah hian kan ram leh hnam leh kan khawtlang nun siamṭha theitu leh sualna kawng hrang hrang vanga tuara kan rum huna Pathiana rinna nghah a fuhzia min hrilh ṭhintu ni thei se la, chu chu he lemchan thawnthu hlawhtlinna tur chu a ni.

 

WORKS CITED

1.Laltluangliana Khiangte, Prof. (ed.), Thuhlaril (Literary Trends & History of Mizo Literature), College Text Book (Mizo) Editorial Board Publications, Aizawl, 2nd ed., 1997, p. 48.

2.Ibid., p. 48.

3.Lalfakzuala (Maf-a), Fanu Hmangaihna, Lalnunchhuangi, Aizawl, 1st ed., 2009, p. v.

4.http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Drama

5.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drama

6.Laltluangliana Khiangte, Prof. (ed.), op.cit.,36 & 37

 

Lehkhabu Biakrawnte:

1.Lalfakzuala (Maf-a), Fanu Hmangaihna, Lalnunchhuangi, Aizawl, 1st ed., 2009

2.Laltluangliana Khiangte, Prof. (ed.), Thuhlaril (Literary Trends & History of Mizo Literature), College Text Book (Mizo) Editorial Board Publications, Aizawl, 2nd ed., 1997.

3.Laltluangliana Khiangte, Dr. (ed.), Mizo Thuziak Thlan Chhuahte, L.T.L. Publications, Aizawl, 2nd ed., 2001.

 

 

B.Internet Thu L^knate:

1.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drama

2.http://www.kristisiegel.com/Basic_Literary_Terms:Drama

3.http://drb.lifestreamcenter.net/Drama

4.http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072405228/student_view0/Glossary_of_Drama_Terms

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