Critical analysis of Mizo Belief as a Monotheist or Polytheist; with special reference to Christianity Belief

-Lalrinfela, Durtlang

Hmanlai kan pi leh pute rinna (belief) kha mi tamtak chuan ramhuai bia ang te leh thingbul lungbul bia angte a sawi an awm thin a ni. Hmanlai kan pi leh pute khan ramhuai te leh thingbul, lungbul an be ngai lova. Hmanlai nunah khan an fimkhur em em a, anmahni tina thei ramhuai leh sih te awmin an ring a, chuvangin an laka an him theih nan an tlawn zawk thin a ni. Bible-ah kan hmu a, inthawi nan-a ran an hman reng rengin an halral thin a ni. Abraham-a pawhin a fapa inthawina atana hlan tura a tih pawhin a fapa aiah Pathianin a rinawm em avangin Beram a pe a ni. Inthawina hi halral thil hlanin an ti thin a ni.

Mizo-ah erawh chuan inthawi nana an hman ran reng reng hi an halral ngai lova, tlem azawng sachhiah angin an dah a. A bak zawng an ei mai thin a ni. Hei hian a tih lan chian em em chu kan biak zawng laka kan rilru put dan a ni. Ramhuaite chu bum theih leh mihring pawhina a tihder theih ang vekah an ngai a ni.

Hnam hrang hrang hian siamtu (creator) kan nei deuh vek a. Bakah thih hnu piahlam (supernatural) lamah pawh hian rindan hrang kan nei thluah deuh vek a ni. Mizo chuan khawvel hi Chhura vuakzawl niin kan ngai a, bakah lirnghing (earthquake) pawh hi satel thil tih nite in kan ngai a ni. Chuvangin Pathian kan tih hi Pakhat chauh awm angin kan ngai vaklo a ni. Pathian tih hi nei ve bawk mahse, Pathian ang tho a thiltithei awm rinna hi an lo nei ve tho a ni. Hindu pawhin Pathian tam tak an nei a, Ganesha, Krishna, Vishnu, Kaali Ma leh a dang tam tak an nei a ni. Greek pawh hi khawvela hnam pakhata pathian ngah ber an nih a rinawm hle a. Apollo, Zues, Hercules leh Archilles leh a dang tam tak kan hmu a ni. Tin Mizo ngeite pawh hian Vanhrika te, Khuanu leh Pu Vana te kan nei a ni.

Christian sakhua rinna hi sakhaw dang rinna ai chuan a hrang deuh a. Siamtu (Creator) hi pakhat chauh a awmin an ngai a. Bakah engkim chunga roreltu leh engkim tithei leh engkim chunga thuneitu chu pakhat chauh awmin an ngai a ni. Chanchintha Johana Bung khat, chang khatah kan hmu a, “A tirin thu a awm, thu chu Pathian hnenah a awm, thu chu Pathian a ni. Chu mi chu a tirin Pathian hnenah a awm. Engkim a zain ama siam a ni, thilsiam zawng zawng hi a ama siam loh eng mah a awm lo. Amahah chuan nunna a awm; chu nunna chu mihringte enna a ni a. Eng chu thim zingah a lo eng a; thimin chu chu a hre lo’ tih kan hmu a. Tin Pathianin khawvel sual tlan turin a fapa mal neihchhun khawvelah a rawn tir tih kan hmu bawk a ni. Trinity rinna hi lo dah tha in, Pathian leh a fapa hi mi pahnih ang pawhin sawi mahila, a fapa Isua ngeiin a sawi a, a ma thu a engmah a tih loh zia leh amah tirtu a pa thu ang zela a awm thu a sawi a, “Tu pawh mi ring chu kei mi ring a ni lo, mi tirtu ring a ni zawk e” Johana 12: 44.  Johana Bung Nga, chang sawmpakua-naah kan hmu leh a, “Tihtak meuhin, tihtak meuhvin ka hrilh a che u, Fapain mahniin eng mah a ti thei lo, Pa thiltih a hmuh chauh lo chu; thil a tih ang apiang chu fapa pawhin a ti ve thin” tih kan hmu bawk a ni.

Chuvangin pumkhat pawh lo ni lo tehreng mahse, thiltithei leh engkm neitu chu pakhat Pathian Isuain ka Pa a tih ngei kha a nih a rinawm a, Monotheist a ni kan ti thei ang. Isua tawngkam ngeiin “Kei hi kawng leh thu tak leh nunna chu, keima tanglo chuan pa ram inthleng tawp lovang” tih kan hmu bawk a. Isua tawngkam tam tak kan thlir hian,mahni a thiltihtheihna nei anga a insawi kan hre lo va, a thiltihtheihna chu Pathian hnenah a awm ve tho a ni tih kan hre thei ang. Chuvangin Christianity Belief hi chu Creator Pakhat chauh an nei kan ti thei a ni.

Monotheist kan tih tak hi Pathian pakhat chauh awm rinna leh Pathian pakhat chauha rinna nghat tihna a ni a, Oxford Dictionary chuan, “Belief that there is only one God” tiin a hrilhfiah a. Polytheist chu Monotheist letling chiah a ni a, Oxford Dictionary chuan, “the worship of more than one God”  tiin a hrilhfiah a. Hmanlai mizo rinna kha Monotheist nge Polytheist hriat a har hle a, a chhan chu Pathian kan tih pawh hi sawifiah fe ngai a ni a. Chuvangin sawi thiam a harin, hrilhfiah thiam a har hle a ni.

Sakhua (religious) kan tih pawh hi sawifiah ngai a ni a. Rinna hi sakhuaa innghat a ni a, chuvangin an rinna hian sakhua hi nasa takin a sawi nghing a ni. The World Book Encyclopedia chuan ti hian a sawi a, ‘Pathian pakhat emaw a aia tam emaw rinna tih te, ‘Mihringin lei leh vana thiltitheitu tha ber leh chak ber remna tura theihtawp a that tumna’, a ni tih a ni a. The New Caxton Encyclopedia chuan, ‘Mihring cho rualloh thiltithei in engemaw kawnga tihdan leh rin tur a siam’ tiin a sawi thung a.Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary ah chuan ‘hmuh theih loh thununtu thiltithei awma hriatna leh rilru leh tisa a kaihharhna avanga chumi thiltithei rinna chu a ni’ tiin a sawi leh thung a. Hans Joachim Schoeps chuan, ‘a zau thei ang ber a lakin sakhua chu mihringin amah aia chungnung leh thiltithei a rinna leh chumi a innghahna avanga an inlaichinna a ni’ a ti a. Sakhua chu engpawh chu nise mihringin amah aia thiltithei a biakna tura rinna a siam leh a duan, chumi anga kalna chu a ni kan ti thei ang. (Pialral lamtluang p 1-2)

Christian sakhua rindanah chuan Pathian pakhat a awm tiin sawi a ni a. An sakhua zirtirna ah pawh ‘Pathian pakhat chauh a awm a, a mah chauh chu rin tur a ni… chatuan pa danglam ngai lo a ni’ tiin zirtir an ni thin a. Tin, thlarau thianghlim kan tih leh fapa (son) pawh hi mi pakhata minung pathum (trinity) pa leh fapa leh thlarau thianghlim anga sawi a ni. Chuvangin Chriatianity hi Monotheist anga sawi theih sakhua a ni. Vantirhkoh kan tihte leh thlarau thianghlim te hi chu Pathian pakhat a mi vek an ni a, anmahni thuin engmah an ti ngai lo va, Pathianin mihring min tanpui tur leh min veng tur a a ruat te ni awm takin Pathian thu Bible-ah kan hmu a ni.

Hinduism kan tih pawh Trinity ang deuh hian thlarau pathum an awm ve a. Brahma- siamtu, Vishnu- Vawng thatu, enkawltu, Shiva- tichhetu te an ni a. Hetah hian Pathian tenau (mini god) kan tih Ganesha, Khrishna, Kaali Ma leh a dang tamtak an rawn piang hlawm a ni. Hindu rinna hi chu Polytheist a nih hmel hle a. A chhanchu a hmasa pathum chauh lo pawh hi pathian tenau kan tih Mini God pawh hi biak (worship) an ni deuh vek a, Temple an nei deuh fur a ni. Chuvangin Pathian pakhat angin an ngaih vek theih a rinawm a ni. (Sakhua p249-250).  Buddha sakhua kan tih te, Muslim te, Confucianism kan tih te leh Jainism te hi chu mi pakhat din a ni deuh tlangpui a, chuvangin Pathian pakhat chauh nei (Monotheist) ang deuhin a ngaih theih a. A chhanchu heng kan sawi sakhua te hi chu Morality leh Philosohy ang deuha kal sakhua an ni deuh tlangpui a. Christian sakhua nen pawh a inzul deuh hle a, chuvangin Monotheist-ah dah pawh ni ila kan tihsual lo maithei a ni.

Mizo hian sakhua kan kalpui kan tih hi tunlai sakhua kan kalpui nen chuan a danglam deuh maithei a. Mizo hian khawtlang huap sakhua kal pahnih chauh kan nei a, ‘fano dawi’ leh ‘kawngpui siam’ a ni mai a. Hei pawh hi sa leh buh leh bal malsawm dilna te leh venhim dilna lam a ni ber a. Heilo Sakung phun kan tih te, Thangchhuah kan tih te hi chu mimal sakhua a ni tawh a. Tin, Pathian an tih an biakna lam a ni lutuk lo va, Sakung phun chuan mahniin sakhua a nei hran thei tawh tihna lam ani ber a, thangchhuah hi chu thih hnu piahlama an nawmna tur kawng kalna a ni ber bawk a. Chuvangin sakhua kan tih pawh hi tunlai sakhua kan tih nen chuan a inang lo deuh a ni.

Hmanlai kan pi leh pute rinna ah kha chuan pathian pakhat aia tam kan neih a rinawm hle a. Rev Zaireman K Zawla ziahdan a tarlan hi enchhin ila, “Thli leh ruah chunga thuneitu Pathian Sabereka chu a makpa Thlanrawkpa khuangchawi tur thu an lo hrilh lo a… Thlanrawk pa hi a ropui em em a, Pathian makpa a ni a, a nupu chu khuavang fanu a ni. Khuavang chu Pathian chi khat a ni” tiin a sawi a. Amah Rev Zairema hian ‘Pathian an tih hi keinin tuna pathian kan tih nen hi chuan a inang lo deuh niin a lang’ a ti a (Rev. Zairema p196-197). Hmanlai Pathian an tih kha an biak em em kan hre lo va, ramhuai te angin mihring an tihnat ve ngai a an rin loh avangin leh mihring duhsaktu anga an ngaih avangin an be vak ngailo emaw ni tih theih a ni. Rev Zairema bawk hian ti hian a ti a, “ Pathian tia vawkte petu chu Luseiho chauh an ni. Khawzim Pathian Pawi lamin an ti a, Mara chuan ‘Khawzangpa’ an ti a, chutiang chuan an bia. Kan sawi tawh angin Pathian hnenah Vawkte an pek hian chung Pathian, Khawzing Pathian tih rilru pua vawkte hi pe an ni awm e. A serh pawh inchung tlung sang lai berah an khai a, khal ang bawkin a serh chu ui ei mai theih l[oh turin ngun takin an phum a ni” tiin a sawi a. Lusei ho hi Pathian tana sa chhiah tu awmchhun chu Lusei chauh an nih mai hmel a. Tin, Pathian anga be awmchhun pawh an ni maithei a ni.

Kan sawi tawh ang khan Pathian an tih tak hi pakhat aia tam an neih a rinawm hle a. A chhan chu Kungawrhi thawnthu-ah kan hmu a, Pathian nupa hrik in enin kungawrhi tlanchhia an tanpui tih kan hmu a. Tin, Liandova te thawnthuah pawh kan hmu bawk a, ‘Chunga pathianin bawkkhupin min en reng’ tih kan hmu bawk a. khuavang pawh hi pathian sawina leh thil thuhmun angin Rev. Zairema chuan a tarlang a, “ Khua ti loa Khuavang an han tih hian an sawi chu a thuhmun reng a. Mihring chungah leh khawvela thil thleng reng reng, tam, thlipui, tuilian hengte hi khawrel an ti a. Thih thu phei hi chu khawrel a nih tlat avangin tu man kan pumpelh thei lo a ni. Tunlaia Pathian thu thu kan tih chiah hi khawrel an tih chu niin a lang. Hei vang hian khuavang tih leh chung Pathian an tih chu a in ang hlr a, Saptawnga ‘God’ tih chu pathian tih tur nge khuavang tih tur an buai kha buai awm reng a ni” tiin a sawi a. Chuvangin Pathian leh khuavang hi thil thuhmun reng a nih mai hmel a, thil pakhat sawi dan danga sawina tawngkam dang mai a nih mai hmel a ni. (Pi pute biak hi p200).

Rev. Saiaithanga chuan Mizoten Pathian chu, ‘Eng huai leh rau zingah mah an sawi tel ngai lo va, a hran ngata vanchung Pathian niin an ring a ni. An sawi danah Pathian chu pakhat niin an hria, Pu vana an tih te, Vanchung nula an tih te chu Pathian ni vein an sawi ngai lo va, mangan nikhuaah an lam ve ngailo. Pathian erawhchu siamtu leh mihring chungchang reltu nia hriatna an nei’ a ti a. K. Zawla chuan, ‘Kan piputen Pathian hi chi hrang paliah an then a; Pu Vana, Vanchungnula, Vanhrika leh Khuavnag ti tein’ a ti ve daih thung a. Rev. C.L. Hminga chuan, ‘Pathian chhungkua- Pa, Pathian, a mupui leh fa awmin an ring, (Pu Vana= Pa, Pathian=Fapa, Vanchungnula= Fanu, Khua=Nu ber). Heti chung hian midang hnenah ni lovin pathian hnenah chauh inthawina na hlan a ni” a ti a. Tin khuavang leh Pathian chu thuhmun nia a sawi laiin Khuavang chu Pathian aia hnuaihnung thlarau…..mihringte enkawltu anga ngaihna a awm niin a sawi a. Min vengtu tihna a ni a ti a. John Hughes Morris pawhin a chang chuan Khuavang hi Pathian tlukpui angin a ngai a ti a ni. (Pialral Lamtluang p 86-87)

Remkunga chuan, “Pathian chu malsawmtu leh vengtu anga ngaihna an nei, an dah dan chu a lain a chianglo hle a, thil ual an tih pawhin hlauhna leh tihna an neilp, a hnenah an inthawi zing vaklo. A awmna a hlat avangin awlsam taka biak pawh mai turah an ruat chiahlo’” a ti a. Tin, Pu Vana te, Vanchungnula te, Khuanu te hi Pathian ang deuhva an ngaih te an ni, amaherawhchu Pathian an tih taka chu ni chiah si lo niin a sawi thung a. Hrangthiauva chuan Pathian chu- ‘pakhat,mipa vana awm, engkim siamtu, malsawm theitu leh humhim theitu mitha tak nia an rin………. A hmingah Pu Vana chung Pathian khuanu, Khuavang an ti, khua te, Vang te, Lasi te hi siamtu Pathian tirhkoh emaw, a inlantirna angah emaw an ngai. Chung Pathian Khuanuleng tih leh khuavang tihte hi siamtu leh hualhimtu a nihna lam thua Pathian hming sawi nan an hmang ngun hle. Mi mal malin siamtu hrang neiin an inngai bawk…’ a ti a. James Dokhuma chuan, ‘Khua chu pathian, mihringte vengtu leh humhimtu leh malsawmtu ber a ni’ a ti a. (Pialral lamtluang p88)

Rev. Zairema chuan, “Pathian an tih hi ‘pa ber; an tihna chu a ni awm e. Thian tih hi thiang tih atanga a lo chhuak a nih chuan ‘hrang daih tihna a ni anga, ‘thianghlim’ tih chu ‘thildang chawhpawlh loh tihna a ni a, Pathian pawh chu Pa thianghlim thildang khawih loh tihna a ni ang a, chu chuan duhsak bik neilo, ai neih ni leh ni loh neilo, mi tin tan pa a ni a, thiang anih avangin khawvel thilah a inhnamhnawih lo va, biak pawh a tul lo va, malsawmtu ni mahse, zarpak a nei ve ngailo” a ti a. Khi khi Mizoten biak tul vak lo leh a hnena inthawi zen zen lova an hriatna chhan niin a sawi bawk a. (Pialral Lamtluang P.88). James Dokhuma chuan, ‘Mizo pi leh pute chuan inthawina chi hrang hrang an ngah hle a; mahse, chung inthawina reng reng chu ramhuai leh mihring tina thintu, hmuh theih loha khawsa thin atanga thiltihtheihna nei laka inthawina a ni ber a. Pathian an tih tak tak hnenah inthawina an hlan lo’ a ti ve reng a ( Hmanlai Mizo Kalphung p. 75).

Liangkhaia chuan, ‘Pathian chu a hranpain a awm tho a, khuanu an tih hi Pathian anga ngaih a ni. Pathian thiltihtheihna tluk nei a ni , Pathianah kan bia a ni ber mai. A ti a. V.L. Siam chuan, ‘Pathian chu chhungkaw neia chunglama awm, an pa ber chu Pu Vana, an nu chu Khuanu, an nula chu Vanchungnula, mihringte malsawmtu niin an ngai  a ti. Pathian lakah hian malsawm dilna a khawtlangin emaw chhungkuain emaw an inthawi thin’ a ti a. Lianzika chuan Pathian leh khuanu hi Mizoten mi thuhmunah an ngai niin a sawi a, hrianchian tumin an dap a, a biakna atan bulthluk tih an hman hmasak ber niin a sawi a. (Pialral lamtluang p. 89-90).

Heng a chunga kan sawi atang hian Mizote hian Pathian kan tih hi chu kan nei ngei a, a hnenah pawh kan inthawi thin ngei a ni tih a hriat bawk a. Mahse a tute mahin tunge Pathian chu ni a, enge a hming tih hi sawi chiang an awm mang lo va. Khuavang leh Pu Vana te hi Pathian ang deuha an ngaih a nih hmel a.Mahse ngaihdan in anglo leh sawi dan in anglo a awm tlat a ni. Amaherawhchu pathian hi chu pakhat, engkim dang zawng aia lal leh thiltithei ber hi chu an nei a nih hmel hle a. Vanhrika te, Thlanrawkpa te, Sabereka te leh Vanchungnula te hi chu a hnuai a mite niin a ngaih theih a ni.

Greek Pathianah pawh Zues hi lal ber leh thiltithei ber, midang chunga leng angin an ngai a. Hercules te, Archilles te leh Apollo te leh midang te hi chu Pathian ni ve tho mahse Pathian te (mini God) kan tih ang hi an nih hmel a. Vanchungnula, Sabereka, Thlanrawkpa te nen hian an nihna inang deuh angah an ngaih theih ang. Chuvangin Greek pawh hi Polytheist-a kan dah chuan Mizo pawh hi Polytheist-ah kan dah hi a inhmeh zawk ngei ang.

Christian sakhua rinna atang phei chuan Monotheist ai chuan Polytheist a nih hmel hle a. Bible thusawm pekah pawh kan hmu a, ‘Kei lo chu Pathian dang i be tur a ni lo’ tih kan hmu a. Heta Pathian a tih hi sakhaw dang Pathian an nih hmel a, Chuvangin Pathian pakhat chauh hi Christian te chuan an nei a ni. Tin, thlarau thianghlim leh vantirhkoh kan tih te hi Mini God kan tihhte zingah pawh lo dah ta pawh ni ila, sakhaw dang anglo takin, Christian ringtu te chuan Pathian angin kan be lo va, Pathian tirhkoh mihring zinga hmuh theihloh angah kan ngai a ni.  Bible-ah kan hmu a Pathian fapa ngei pawhin a hminga a pa hnena kan thil duh dil turin min ti a ni. Chuvangin Christian Belief hi chu Monotheist a ni tih chiang takin a sawi theih a.

Hmanlai kan pi leh pute rinna (belief) kha kan chhui let a, kan thlir chuan Pathian pakhat aia tam nei an ni a. Pathian tih thumal hi neiin sawi mahse Pathian an tih tak hi chiang taka sawi theih an nei lo va, hmuh theih loh leh mihringa inlar ngai lo angin an ngai niin a lang ber a ni. Khuavang te, Vanchungnula te, Thlanrawkpa te, Sabereka te hi Pathian ang deuha an ngaih leh mihring hmuh theiha inlar thin Pathian anga an ngaihte an ni ber a ni.

Chuvangin Mzo te rinna hi Monotheist ni lovin Polytheist a ni kan ti thei ang. A chhanchu Pathian pakhat chauh hi malsawmna pe thei tu leh mihring venghim thei angin an ngai lo va, khuavang leh khuanu te leh pathian dang pawh hian an mahni hian thiltihtheihna bik (unique) nei angin an ngai a. Christian rinna-ah chuan Pathian chu a bul leh a tawp, amah atanga engkim chhuak leh a thu loa engmah kal lo anga ngaih anih avangin hmanlai kan pi leh pute rinna nen chuan a inanglo deuh a ni. Chuvangin Polytheist a ni kan ti thei ang.

Work cited

Dokhuma, James ‘Hmanlai Mizo kalphung’ Gilzom Offset. 2015. Aizawl. Print.

Lalremsiama, F. ‘Pialral lamtluang’. Lengchhawn press. 2011. Aizawl. Print.

Zairema, Rev. ‘Pi pute biak hi’ Hebron Press, 2009. Aizawl. Print.

Oxford Dictionary

Bible

Reference

Lalbiaknema, C. ‘Mizote khawsak dan’. Milan Computerised Press. 2000. Aizawl. Print.

Chaldailova, R. ‘Mizo pi pute khawvel’. Gilzom Offset. 2011. Aizawl. Print.

Chawngkunga, C. ‘Sakhua. Omniprint Offset. 1997. Aizawl. Print.

Lianthanga, C. ‘Hmanlai Mizo nun’.Zorin Compugraphics.1999. Aizawl. Print.

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Tamsang, Lyangsong. ‘Lepchca Folklore and Folksongs’ D.G. Offset. 2014. Kolkata. Print.

Murasingh, Chandrakanta. ‘tales and tunes of tripura hills’ D.G. Offset. 2015. Kolkata. Print.

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