An ecocritical analysis of Thal and Damlai Pialral – H. Laldinmawia

An eco-critical analysis of  ‘Ṭhal’ and  ‘Damlai Pialral’

— H.Laldinmawia
Assistant Professor
Department of Mizo
Pachhunga University College

Ecocriticism chu mihring leh khuarel thil (nature) leh ram leilung (landscape) inkungkaihna chik taka zirchianna a ni ber a (Nayer, 242). Glotfelty chuan literature leh ram hmelhmang (physical environment) inkungkaih dan zirna a ni, a ti a. Mihring leh thil siam dang inkungkaihna chungchang thuziak, uluk taka zirna tih te a ni bawk (Vannghaka, 207).[adToAppearHere]

Kum zabi 20-na a ziaktu hmasa Aldo Leopold, John Muir leh Rachel Carson te khan literature leh chhehvel thil (environment) thlir dan hrang hrang an lo ziak tawh a, khang an thuziak te kha ecocriticism bul ṭanna atana pawimawh tak vek an ni. Amaherawhchu, theory anga ‘ecocriticism’ lo chhuah dan chu khawvel ṭhang zelah environment tichhe thei thil bawlhhhlawh (pollution) lo pung avanga miṭhahnemngaiho (activist) te thubuai siam aṭanga lo irhchhuak a ni ber zawk.

Ecocriticism hi kum 1970 chho vel bawra thumal pahnih ‘criticism’ leh ‘ecology’ kaikawpa phuah a ni a, ‘environmental criticism’ emaw ‘green studies’ emaw tiin an sawi ve ṭhin bawk (Abrams, 81). Ecocriticism hi critical theory-ah chuan a tharlam ber zinga mi a ni a, a tir taka he thumal rawn hmangtu chu William Rueckert a ni. Ani hian kum 1978 khan ‘Literature and ecology: An experiment in Ecocriticism’ tih essay a ziak a, (Vannghaka, 207) hei hi a bul ṭan chhoh tak takna anga ngaih a ni. Ecocriticism[adToAppearHere]

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hi discipline hrang hrang aṭanga thlir theih a nih avangin literary theory anga pawm tak chu kum 1989-a WesternLiterature Association meeting-ah ‘thu leh hlaa khuarel chanchin zirna’ (the study of nature writing) neihah Cheryll Glotfelty chuan ‘Ecocriticism’ tiin a rawn rawt a. Heta ṭang hian paper hrang hrangah hman chhunzawm a ni ta a ni.

Literature khawvelah hian chhehvel thil (environment) hi hmasang aṭanga awm tawh a ni a, Hebrai Bible-a Eden huan chungchang te, Greek thuziak mi Theocritus kutchhuak leh Roman huna Virgil-a sulhnu-ah te khan hmuh tur a awm. James Thomson-a blank verse ‘The season’ (1726-30) te kha khuarel thil siam nena inkungkaih tlat an ni bawk. United States-ah chuan Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE) te chuan literature leh environment inkungkaih dan zirchianna hi 1990 vel aṭang khan an buatsaih ṭhin a, an chanchinbu (journal) Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment (ISLE)-ah chuan nasa taka an ziah avangin ‘ecocriticism’ hi an vawrh lar ta hle a ni.[adToAppearHere]

Ecocriticism-in a tum bulpui leh a nihphung tlangpui chu — (a) thu leh hlaa khuarel (nature) leh nunphung (cultural studies) chungchang zirchianna (b) Thu leh hlaa hmun (place – physical, topographical) te pawimawhna leh ṭangkaina zir (c) mihring nilo te nunphung (non-human life) leh mihring nun inkungkaihna tarlan (d) mihring dah pawimawhna (anthropomorphic), mipa lalna (patriarchal) leh sumdawnna (capitalist) leh hmeichhia, thilsiam leh ram hmelhmang inkungkaih dan zirna (e) thu leh hla leh chhehvel thil (environment) humhim leh humhalh tura beihna chungchang te pawh a huam vek thei ang. Thu leh hla huanga thil siam khawvel (natural world) leh thil nung zirna (biology) chungchang hi ‘literary ecology’ tiin Joseph Meekera’n 1972 khan a lo phuah tawh bawk (Nayer, 243).

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Ecocriticism lama sulsutu leh zirchiangtu Cheryll Glotfelty chuan ecocriticism hi hlawm thumin a ṭhen a —
1. Thu leh hlaa khuarel (nature) lan dan zirchianna.
2. Khuarel (nature) chungchang ziakna hmuhchhuah.[adToAppearHere]

3. Aiawh (symbol) atana nunna nei thil hman chungchang te a ni.

Deep Ecology hi khawvel pum huap pawha khuarel (nature) humhalhna kawng thupui thehdarh (philosophy) lar ber zinga mi a ni. Pawl pakhat ‘Earth First!’ phei chuan he thu hi auhla berah an nei a, a thupui laimu ber chu — Khawvel mihring te thil thlir dan, ngaihtuahna leh chetvelna zawng zawng hi mihring dah pawimawhna ‘human centric’ (technical term chuan ‘Anthropocentrism’) a ni a, mahse chenna leilung ṭha leh him zawk (safer planet) nei thei tura thilsiam (nature) humhalh leh inkungkaihna dah pawimawh ‘eco-citicism’ or ‘biocentric’ vawrh lar an duh zawk a ni.

Deep Ecology ngaihdan aṭang chuan thil siam engkim hian inkungkaihna leh inmamawhna an nei vek a, anthropocentrism hian thil siam leh mihring nun hi a ṭhen hrang niin an ngai bawk. Deep Ecology-in a tum ber chu nunna nei thil siam chauh ni lo, nunna nei lo thil siam, lui leh tlang zawng zawng te pawh zaha, vawnhim leh humhalh an duh a ni.

Marxist Environmentalism emaw Marrxist ecologist te ngaihdan chuan khuarel (nature) hi sumdawng (capitalist) te zawrhsum (commodity) mai a ni a, thilsiam te chu heng mite hlawkna pawimawh tak niin an ngai thung. Eco-socialist ho chuan chhehvel thil (environment) hi mihring dinhmun ṭhenhrangtu-ah an ngai a. Boruak bawlhhlawh leh lum (air pollution) chu hausa zawk ten tlansanin tunlai thiamna hmanga air condition khawl hnuaiah an awm a, rethei zawk ten an tuar niin an ngai.

Ecofeminism ngaihdan aṭang chuan mipa rorelna leh thuneihna (patriarchal society)-ah chuan hmeichhia leh thilsiam te rahbehna a nasa zel a. Hmeichhe thiltih ve te, an hriatna leh thiamna te chu

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ngaihthah a ni fo ṭhin. Nature hi a nu (feminine) anga ngaiin culture chu a pa (masculine) anga ngaih a ni a, chutianga chhut chuan mipa chuan an ngaihtuahna (mind) an seng a, thil dang (objective) an vei a, awmze nei (rational) takin thil an ti a, ṭhiante leh midang (public) bula awm nuam an ti hle. Hmeichhia erawh chuan an taksa (body) an ngai pawimawh a, anmahni (subjective) an ngai pawimawhin an rilru a no (emotional) em em a, anmahni mimal nun (private)-ah an in sawrbing ṭhin niin ngaih a ni bawk a. Heng avang te hian ecofeminist ngaihdan aṭang chuan hmeichhia chu nature nena hmehbel niin mipate hnehchhiah (oppressed) leh chungtlak (dominate) nia ngaih an ni.

Kaphleia ‘Ṭhal’

Kaphleia ‘Ṭhal’ tih hla hi nature hmanga nature vek puanchhuahna hla a ni a, nature leh mihring nun a khaikhin a, mihring aiin nature a dah sang zawk mah emaw tih tur a ni a, anthropocentrism leh biocentrism indonna-ah hian biocentrism-in hmun a chang sang zawk niin a ngaih theih.[adToAppearHere]

Syllabic verse form-a phuah ‘Ṭhal’ tih hla hi Kaphleia hian 1939 vela a phuah niin a lang a (B.Lalthangliana, 22). A hla phuah 9 hmuhchhuah theih zinga a anpui awm lo hla danglam a ni a, Mizo poetry zinga dinhmun sang luah chatuan tur zinga mi a ni.

‘Ṭhal’ (spring) hi a taka hmuh leh khawih theih ni lo, object ni lova abstract thil a ni a. Pangpar te leh nungchate anga awmna hmun nei emaw, khawih theih thil emaw ni lovin, hun inherin a herchhuah theih thil, sik leh sa ‘season’ a ni daih. Hla phuahtu zingah hian a taka hmuh leh khawih theih thil siam (physical nature) tuipuitu leh ngainatu chu tam tak an awm a, sik leh sa (abstract nature/season) tuipui pha erawh hlui khat daih pawh kan nei lo maithei. Ṭhal hi nature ni ve bawk mahse, amah tak hi a hmuh theih lova, rim a nei lova, thawm a nei hek lo. Mahse chu thil chu nature dang hmanga hriat leh hmuh theih a ni a, nature dang hmang bawkin a

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rim kan hre thei. Chuvang chuan nature hmanga nature puanchhuahna (nature within nature) hla a ni.

Kaphleia hian hmuh theih loh ‘Ṭhal’ chu Romei zam te, Farṭuah par te, Vaube par te leh thinghnah chawr no hlep hlep hmang tein hmuh theihah a chantir a. Phawngphawdawt, Kiltheihrawk leh Chhimbuk hram ri hmangin chu hun chu season dang nilovin, ‘ṭhal’ ngei a ni tih a nemnghet a. Chhun ni sensa hnuaia Ar la tui tur dawkdawlak (kawkkawdak) thawm te, nula Herawt her ri ruai ruai ri te leh thlifim lo tleh heuh heuh te hmangin season dang aia lung a tihlen bik zia a puangchhuak bawk. Nature, mihring leh mihring thil siam chi hrang hrang inkungkaihna hmangin nature pakhat ‘ṭhal’ duhawmna a phawrhchhuak thei a ni.[adToAppearHere]

Nula te chuan an thawmhnaw mawi ber ber te, an incheina ṭha ber ber te leh an hmai hnawih rimtui ber ber te chu uluk taka an khungkhawm ang mai hian, ṭhal laia pangpar mawi tak tak lo par te leh an rimtui leng vel chu hnar len meuhin a han hnim a, ‘Rimtui leh duhawm bawm i ni’ a ti thlawt mai nia!

Kaphleia hian mihring leh nature chu a khaikhin a, a mihrinna tarmit hmanga a han thlir chuan nature tluk pha lo nia inhria-in, a lungawi lo lek lek emaw tih tur a ni. Mihring chu an liam zel a, ṭhal erawh a ma hunbi pangngaiah a lo herchhuak leh zel bik a. Mahse, a tluk loh nia a hriat chu thil dang nilovin, ‘nature’ a nih miau avangin vui thu-ah a la lova, inhnem nan a hmang leh ta zawk a.

Aw! hringnun tawi tuar a nem ang,
Fam ta hnu vul ve thei ila;
Lungphang taka ṭhen tawh te kha,
Lungduh dar ang tawng leh ila;
Chunglum lelte, hram thiam sirva,
I iangin kan zai ang khua ṭhalah, tiin.[adToAppearHere]

Hei vang hian a ni, Kaphleia nature hmangaihna ‘biocentrism’ hi a ‘anthropocentrism’ hian a ngam meuh lo kan tih ni!

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R.L Thanmawia ‘Damlai Pialral’ :

R.L.Thanmawia ‘Damlai Pialral’ hi mihring nun thlirna, vanglai hun ṭha liam tur a ui zia a puanchhuahna hla a ni a. English literary genre aṭanga thlir chuan ‘lyrics’, ‘ode’ emaw ‘elegy’ emaw pawh nih theihna lai a nei vek mai. Mihring vanglai nun nawmzia leh duhawmzia chu ngaihnawm leh hmuhnawm takin a hril a, thil pakhat (single emotion)-ah a insawr bing avangin ‘lyrics’ emaw ‘ode’ emaw nih theihna a nei a. Chutih rual chuan vanglaini leh vullaini liam tur chu a sun a, ṭap chungin a thlah a, chuvang chuan ‘elegy’-ah pawh a chhal theih ang.

‘Damlai Pialral’ part I leh II a awm a, college text book a mi hi a part I niin kum 1993-a a phuah a ni. Syllabic verse form a phuah bawk he hla hi chang 6-ah ṭhen a ni a, nature nena a inkungkaihna lai awm chhun chu chang 2-na leh chang 4-na chauh a ni. Amaherawhchu, he chang hnih chauh hian thu tam tak an sawi a, mihring nun hi thil siam hmangin a teh a, liam leh ral leh mai ṭhin mihring nun aṭang chuan kumtina tuai thar leh ṭhin thilsiam te chu a awt ngawih ngawih mai a ni.

R.L.Thanmawia thil siam khawvelah chuan ramngaw te chuan an dinhmun ngai an luah reng a, lui tui te chu an thianghlim ngaia thianghlimin an luang reng a. Ramngawa sa chi hrang hrang te pawh lungrual takin an tla dial dial a, rannung tenau zawk Phengphehlep leh khuai te pawh an leng za a. Tuipui thuk tak tak mai bakah tuipui chhunga Sangha leh nungcha dang te, khawmuala pangpar mawi ber ber leh thing hnah hring mawi tak te chu an duah hluah hluah reng mai niin a ngai a. Sik leh sa (season) inthlak avangin thil siam te chu inthlak ve bawk mahse, an nihphung leh zia danglam lovin a tharin a rawn thlak zel niin a hmu a ni.[adToAppearHere]

Chu thil siam khawvel chu a han thlir a, mihring nun nen a han khaikhin chuan inang lo a ti a, miring nun chu thil siam dang te anga intuaithar ve lovin a liam mek zel niin a hmu a ni. He hlaah hian

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nature khawvel awhawm zia a chhut a, thil nung leh nung lo (physical environment) thlengin a thlir kual a, a dah sang em em a, hei lo liama ‘deep ecology’ hi a awm chuang dawn em ni?

Hetih rual hian mihring nun dah chungnun riauna a nei thung a. Mihring vullai, vanglaini leh ṭhatlaini, amah ngeiin ‘Damlai Pialral’ ti hiala a koh chu a tlukpui awm lo niin a hre thung a. Pangpar mawi chi hrang hrang inpar pawlh chuk pawhin a khum zo lo nia ngaiin,

Senhri par leh thingsiri par
Ṭuahpui leh vau vullai zawng te;
Zozam par leh Phunchawngpui par,
Chhing zo, khum zo an awm an awm nem le, a ti hial a ni.

Amaherawhchu, ngun taka he hla chang hi kan chhiar chuan, thil mawi leh duhawm ber nia a hriat, mihring vanglaini leh ṭhatlaini tehkhin pha tur awm chhun nia a ngaih chu ‘nature’ tho a ni. Chubakah chuan heng thil siam te hian mihring vullaini chu a ‘chhing zo lo’ leh ‘khum zo lo’ niin a sawi a, Mizo ṭawngah chuan ‘Chhing’ chu ‘kh<m’ emaw ‘pel’ emaw tihna a ni a (Thanmawia 72), ‘Kh<m’ chu ‘pel’, ‘liam’ leh ‘chungnung’ emaw (Ibid, 116) sawina a nih avangin mihring duhawm lai ber leh ṭhatlai ber hi nature-in a ‘chhing lo, a khum lo’ niin a sawi a, chuti a nih chuan an ‘intluk’ ni-ah a la ngai tho tihna a ni.[adToAppearHere]

 

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Bibliography:
Abrams, MH and Harpham, Geoffrey Galt. A handbook of literary terms.Cengage Learning. New Delhi. 2009. Print
Nayar, Pramod K. Contemporary Literary and Cultural Theory (From Structuralism to Eccriticism). Always learning. Dorling Kondersley. Repro Knowledgecast. Thane. India 2016. Print
Laldinmawia, H (ed). Fam Rohlu (A collection of state level seminar paper on Patea, Damhauha, L.Biakliana and Kaphleia). Pachhunga University College Publication. Beraw Press, Saron Veng. 2012. Print
Lalthangliana, B. Kaphleia leh C.Ṭhuamluaia hnuhma. Mizoram Publication Board. RTP Press, Aizawl. Second Edition. 2006. Print
Tonson, Vanlalremruata (ed). Hnahthel. Kaphleia Memorial Trust.Lois Bet, Chanmari. 2015. Print.
Renthlei, Darchuailova. Vankhama Hlate (A critical study). Gilzom Offset. Second Edition. 2003. Print.
Lalzarmawia, R (et al). Inte Thawveng. Kaphleia Memorial Trust. RD Print Tech. 2013. Print
Vannghaka, KC Dr. Literature Zungzam. Vanhlupuii. Lois Bet. Chanmari. 2014. Print
Thamawia, RL Dr. Ngirtling (BA Mizo zirlaia hlate). College Text Book (Mizo) Editorial Board. Franco Press. First Edition 2005. Print
— . Hla thu Dictionary (A Dictionary of Poetic Terms). Mizoram Publication Board. Franco Press. First Edition 2004. Print[adToAppearHere]

(Seminar paper on Re-reading of Mizo literature with special reference to Under Graduate Courses organised Department of Mizo, Govt. Hnahthial College on 17.3.2017)

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*Govt. Hnahthial College. Re-reading of Mizo literature (With Special Reference to under graguate course) A compilation of Seminar paper. Hnahthial: Lois Bet Print & Publication. 2017

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