A feminist reading of James Dokhuma’s novel Silaimu Ngaihawm – Enid H. Lalrammuani

A FEMINIST READING OF JAMES DOKHUMA’S NOVEL “SILAIMU NGAIHAWM”

Enid H.Lalrammuani
Assistant Professor
Dept of Mizo
Pachhunga University College

Introduction: Literature hi khawtlang nun (society) hlimthla tarlangtu ti a sawi a ni ṭhin. George Boas-a chuan ‘Ideas are the beliefs of the people’ (Mipuite’n nghet taka an lo vawn leh pawm tawh te hi rilru puthmang leh ngaihdan siamtu a ni) tiin a lo sawi a. Ziakmite suangtuahna leh duhthusam pawh hi a chenna khawtlang nunphung leh hnam zia nen a inkungkaih tlat a, chumi hlimthla chu an thu leh hlaah a lo lang ṭhin. Suangtuahna liau liaua din phuahchawp thawnthu te hian a ziaktu rilru put hmang leh a chenna society hlimthla a keng tel zel a, a chhan chu mihring rilru leh ngaihtuahna te hi chhungkua leh khawtlanga kan nunhona in kawng hrang hranga a thunun tlat ṭhin vang a ni. Thil nihphung leh nihdan tur ve reng a kan lo ngaih leh pawm tawh – ngaihdan (ideas/ideology) nghet taka kan lo neih te hi chhungkua leh khawtlang inrelbawlna aṭanga lo chhuak a nih avangin ngaihtuah nawn,zirchian leh ennawn a ngai tih hi hnial rual a ni lovang. Khawvel hi mipate rorelna leh thuneihna ‘patriarchal system’ hnuaia awm ti a sawi a ni thin. Chuvangin engkim mai hi mipa ngaihdan leh thlirna atanga teh leh duan a ni a, ngaihtuah nawn leh chhut nawn a ngai tih hi Feminist theory innghahna a ni.

Feminist theory thlirna aṭang chuan mihring chi-ai (sex) hi pianpui thil a nih laiin, mipa leh hmeichhiate nihna leh zeizia (gender) hi chu hnam nunphung (culture) leh khawtlang nunhona (society) in a siam a ni ve thung. Mipa leh hmeichhiate mizia, nundan tur leh mawhphurhna hrang hrang te chu Gender Ideology hmanga duan a ni a. Mipa chu mipa zia – pa tak, huaisen, chak, thiltithei, rothap, tharum emaw finna emaw hmanga harsatna hmachhawn thei tur leh roreltu ni tura beisei a nih laiin hmeichhia erawh chu ze zawi, nunnem, mipa thuhnuaia intulut thei, hmeltha leh zaidam etc ni tura ngaih a ni ve thung. Heng zia te hi mihringin a pian chhuah pui ve reng ni lovin a seilenna hnam zia leh nunphung atanga zir leh neih chawp niin an ngai. Feminist hmingthang tak Simone de Beavouir chuan ‘One is not born, but rather becomes a woman’ tiin a lo sawi a (The Second Sex, 295). John Stuart Mill pawhin mipa thlirna atang ringawta hmeichhe mizia leh nunphung tarlan hi a khingbai in a famkim loh theih zia ti hian a lo sawi ve bawk a, ‘we may safely assert that the knowledge that men can acquire of women, even as they have been and are, without reference to what they might be, is wretchedly imperfect and superficial and will always be so until women themselves have told all they have to tell,’ tiin a lo sawi ve bawk . Hmeichhiate’n an ngaihdan leh an nihna dik tak an puanchhuah ve hma chuan an thiltih, nunphung leh awmdan pangngai atanga mipaten hmeichhia an hmuh dan ringawt hi chu a famkim tawk thei lovang tihna a ni awm e. Feminist theory hmanga thu leh hla zirchianna Feminist Literary Theory in a tum ber pakhat chu thu leh hlaa hmeichhiate dinhmun zirchian hi a ni. He paper hian James Dokhuma novel Silaimu Ngaihawm a hmeichhia character te zirchiangin, a ziaktu in hmeichhia a thlir dan leh a tarlan dan a thlur bing dawn a ni.

Silaimu Ngaihawm thawnthu hi Mizoram buai laia Mizo army Lt.Col Sanglura leh Hualtu nula Ramliani te inhmangaihna thawnthu lungchhiatthlak tak a ni. Sanglura leh Ramliani te hian inneih ngei an tum laiin vanduaithlak takin Sanglura hi India sipai ten an kap hlum ta hlauh mai a. A thih dawnah amah an kah hlumna silaimu ngei chu Ramliani pe turin a thianpa Zaikima a chah a. Ramliani chuan Sanglura thi chu a tuar em em a, a thlan Lungpho daia mi chu a ti fai thin a, tu thlan nge tih leh tunge ti fai tih hriatchian a nih hma chuan thu lengvak mak sak leh rin dan hrang a tam hman hle a ni. Ramliani chuan silaimu chu Sanglura nena an inzawmna awmchhun niin a ngai a, a thih pawhin a hmai bul chena dah turin a ṭhiannu Chalkimi hnenah a chah nghe nghe a. Tlangval dang leh ngaihzawng dang emaw pasal neih lam reng reng a ngaihtuah lova, Sanglura thih hnu atang hian nun hlimna reng reng a nei thei ta lova, a chak lo telh telh a, chaw a ei tlem telh telh a, a tawpah chuan a thih chhan natna pawh hriat chhuah lohvin a boral ta a ni.

He novel-ah hian hmeichhe character langsar ber protagonist chu Ramliani hi a ni. He thawnthu-a harsatna thlen chhan hi rambuai leh a nghawng tawrhna leh thihna avang a ni a, chuvang chuan character zingah sual leh hnawksak hmuh tur an awm hran lo. Hmeichhe character-te hi hmeichhe fel leh midang hriatthiamna ngah tak te an ni hlawm a, character langsar leh huhang nei tak erawh an awm lo thung Ramliani hmang hian a ziaktu in hmeichhia a thlir dan emaw a tarlan dan emaw, a duhthusam zirchian lo tum ila :

Ramliani hi a ziaktu hmeichhe duhthusam (stereotype Idealised woman character) a ni: Hmeichhe tha leh fel ni tur chuan hmeltha, thuawih, inngaitlawm, thuhnuairawlh tak, ngawi thei leh tuar chhel, rinawm, dawhthei tak, mahni hmasial lo etc nih a ngai. Mipa thuhnuaia kun thei lo emaw ngaihdan leh duhdan nei hrang ve ngat mi ang hmeichhia, harsatna hmachhawna tawn tlang mai ngam ang te hi a changtunu ber (protagonist) anga hman an ni ngai mang lo. He thawnthu ah pawh hian Ramliani hian inneih chungchanga Sanglura rawtna hi a pawm thei. An inneih a harsatna awm thei hrang hrang te a ngaihtuah fe hnuah hlauhthawnna in a khat a, chuti chung chuan Sanglura rawtna hi a pawm ta tho a ni.

Sanglura tan hian a rinawm tluanchhuak parh thei. Sanglura tan hian a rinawm em em a ‘…Dam leh hlim taka kan inhmuh leh theih nan ka tawngtai a, chu hun chu nghakin midang lakah ka indah hrang ru hmiah mai a ni….Pathian leh kan ram tan chauh ni lo…tan pawh ka rinawm reng e’ tiin Sanglura hnena a lehkhathawnah a ziak nghe nghe. Sanglura thih hnu ah hian Ramliani hian damchhan dang neiin a inhre tawh lova, an chhungkuaah harsatna leh hreawmna tawng lo mah se a thiannu Chalkimi hnenah chuan ‘…ka nulatna hian dam chhan a nei ve tawh mawlh si lo,’ a ti tawp mai a ni. Nupui atana rawn be tu apiang a hnar zel a, pasal nei tura an tirh pawhin, ‘…ka pa, pasal nei tur zawngin min tir lul teh suh u, ka hrilh dawt mai ang che u, pasal zawng ka nei dawn lo’, tiin a ngaihdan a sawi tawp mai. Pasal a neih loh chhan tur hi a sawi lova, a chhungte pawhin an zawt zui lova, an nawr zui lem lo bawk. Sipai hlauhawm leh rambuai ralti tak karah a chhungte bumin Lungpho daia Sanglura thlan tifai turin a kal ṭhin a, zankhua a ṭapin a sun fo va; ‘incheina leh silhfenin’ atan awmzia a nei tawh lova, ‘fahrah ang mai’ niin a inhria a, nula te nunphung leh hlimpui tur thil zawng zawng lak atangin a inla hrang a, a tawmim in a tawpah a rawp ral ta a ni ber mai. ‘…thih daih ka duh, thih daih ka chak, muthilh hlen theih ni se…’ tih hi a tawngkam chhuak a ni fova, tuma hnenah a chhan a sawi chhuak ngai lem lo thung.

Nu leh pa leh chhungkaw duhawm tak hnuaiah harsatna leh buaina dang nei hauh lova khawsa ni mah se, Sanglura thih hnu chuan Ramliani hian fahrah ang chauh niin a inhria a. He thawnthu ziaktu in fahrah tih ṭawngkam a hman tirna hi a dinhmun nen a inmil lo viauin a lang a, he thumal leh ṭawngkam hi mipa chungnunzia leh hmeichhiate innghahna an nihzia tarlangtu atana hman luih emaw hman palh emaw a ni ngei ang. Ramliani pawh khan innghahna atan Sanglura a thlang a, a hmangaihna chu a rilru leh taksa hlanin a lantir tawh a; Sanglura duhdan leh ruahmanna kha amah thununtu atan a lo pawm fel thlap tawh avangin chumi tel lo chuan innghahna leh belh tur ṭha nei lo fahrah ang chauhin a inngai ta a ni. Ziakmite hian an rilru puthmang emaw khawtlang nunphung leh ngaihdan an tarlang fo ṭhin a, James Dokhuma pawh hi a bang thei bik lo niin a lang.

Ramliani hi mipa duhthusam a din hmeichhia, a hmangaih Sanglura tana inhlan ral raih a ni. He nula hian ngawi rengin a tuar a, a hmangaihna chu rinawmna hmangin a lan tir a, a rinawmna chu thihnain a hlenchhuak ta a ni ber mai. A thih dawn hnaiha a ṭhiannu Kimkimi hnena a chanchin a sawi bak chu tuma hnenah a sawi chhuak ngai lova, a rilru natna leh a tawrhna aṭanga talchhuah dan kawng a zawng lova, puitu leh a damna tur a zawng lo hrim hrim bawk.

Mipate thlirna leh duhthusam aṭanga din hmeichhe character te hian famkim tawk lohna a nei fo tih hi feminist critic te ngaihdan a ni. Mihring (hmeichhe) mizia hi duhthusam hmanga lantir ngawt emaw thunun tlat emaw a nih chuan character ten an nihphung an hloh hlauh thei. Tak tak anna leh mihring mizia dik (realistic or authentic) nei mang lo, character chak lo leh fel leh ṭha lutuk emaw sual leh tha lo uchuak lutuk emaw te hian hmeichhe mizia a tarlan dan hi a khingbai fo. Ramliani’n Sanglura kahhlumna silaimu a ngaih hlut dan te, an chhungkaw dinhmun leh an inlaichinna ṭhat em em laia a chhungte hnena engmah a sawi chhuak ngai hauh lo te, ngawi reng a thih chak em em ringawt mai te, a rilru natna a zep tlat mai te hian hmeichhe ze pangngai dik tak a tarlang zo lo hle in a lang. Ramliani hi hmeichhe dik tak anga a harsatna sawi chhuak ve turin a zalen lova, a ziaktu hian hmeichhe rinawm leh fel, hmangaihna a mipa duhthusam tarlan nan a hmang mai niin a lang. Patriarchal society-a hmeichhe mizia leh duhthusam tarlang tura din hmeichhe rinawm, ngawi thei leh tuar thei, etc a ni.

Feminist thlirna aṭang chuan hmeichhiate hi mipa thuhnuaia damchhunga intulut an ni. Naupang aṭanga puitlin, tar thlengin mipa thuhnuaiah leh an awpbehna hnuaia awm angin an ngai a. Ei leh bar zawnna kawngah leh khawtlang inrelbawlna ah pawh hmeichhiate hi thuneitu ber leh roreltu anga tarlan an ni ngai mang lo. He thawnthuah pawh hian chhungkua, khawtlang , ram inrelbawlna leh rambuai kaihhnawihah hmeichhiate hi ṭanpuitu leh tawiawmtu angin tarlan an ni ve chauh a, mipate hmalakna leh ruahmanna hnuaia tha thawh ve tu ang chauh an ni, mipa tlukpuia hmeichhe character chak leh thiltithei hmuh tur an awm lo. Mihring inawpbehna hi pawnlam lang thei a kan dinhmun mai a ni lova, ngaihtuahna chhungril ber – mihring rilru puthmang leh thil thlir dan thlengin awpbeh theih kan ni. Entirnan mipa leh hmeichhiate kan in thlir dan leh kan inbeisei dan te, mahni leh mahni kan inngaih dan leh inpawm dan thleng pawh hian inawpbehna (oppression) a ni a, dinhmun hnuaihnung leh chungnung zawk tarlanna hmanrua a ni thei ve bawk.

Hmeichhe chunga mipa rilru puthmang chu Sanglura hmangin he thawnthuah hian tarlan a ni a. Sanglura chuan Ramliani chunga a rilru dik tak ti hian a tarlang a, “…ka tum loh takin indona hmunah hmangaihna pangpar ka tawng ta che a. Chu chu thliak lo chuan kal ka tum hauh lo asin, chu pangpar chu rei ka lawm hman emaw hman lo emaw, ka tan dah ngheh ka tum tlat a ni. I hnial bik lovang tiraw?” tiin Ramliani hnenah a sawi a. Ramliani hi Sanglura tan chuan thil mawi leh hlu tak, atana neih ngei tur thil, mipa lungdum tura duan leh mipate duhthusam tihlawhtling tura duan ni mai awm a ni. Rei a lawm hman emaw hman lo emaw a ngaihtuah lova, a ta a nih phawt kha Sanglura tana pawimawh ber chu niin a lang. Chumi hnuah chuan eng tawrhna leh vanduaina pawh lo thleng se, Sanglura hian a ngaihtuah tawh lova, a ta, a chanpual a nih kha a ngaih pawimawh ber leh duh ber chu niin a lang.

Sanglura rilru puthmang leh thil tum hi mahni hmasial tak thil ni mah se, he thawnthuah hian a thiltih engmah hian pasal\ha chhuanawm tak a nihna hi a dal zo chuang lo. Ramliani chuan, “…Kei chuan indona thlang lovin hmangaihna ka thlang a, buaina aiin inremna ka duh zawk bawk a. Mahse kan duh zawk ang zela mihring hi awm thei kan nih si loh avangin, tunah pawh hian kan duh zawk angin kan awm leh thei lo ang tih ka hlauthawng a..” tih hi a chhanna a ni. Hmeichhiate hian ngaihdan leh duhdan nei ve mah se, mipa duhthusam leh ngaihdan dodal tur leh thlak danglam turin chakna an nei tawk lo tih a lang chiang viau awm e. Ramliani hian a duh zawk ang zela awm thei a nih lohzia a hria a, a duh loh zawk thil pawh Sanglura duh zawng a nih chuan a pawm a ṭul tih a hria a, a roh em em a hlutna neihchhun a nulat thianghlimna pawh a hmangaihna fiahna leh nemnghehna tura Sanglura beisei a nih avangin a hlan ta a ni. Hmangaihna khura lungrual taka tlulut dun ni mah se, duhthlanna siam tur chuan an inchungnun hleih hle a, Sanglura duhthusam leh ngenna chu tihhlawhtlin a ṭul a, Ramliani’n harsatna awm thei a thlirna te leh a duhdan a sawi te chu mipa rilru aṭang chuan hmangaihna tak tak tling zo lo a ni tlat a ni. He hmeichhia hian amah a in phat a ngai a, a ngaihdan a thlauhthlak zawk a ngai a, ama nihna leh hlutna thlengin a vui liam a ngai ta zawk niin a lang. Sanglura’n a thih dawn a “…he silaimu, ka nunna la tu ngei hi Rami i rawn pe dawn nia…” ti a a chah chhan hi tarlan leh sawifiah ni lo mah se, Ramliani rilru leh nun zawng zawng thununtu atan he silaimu hi a chak tawk em em thung si. Sanglura nena an inzawmna awmchhun nia hriain a roh em em a, a thlan a tlawh hnuhnun ber tuma a lehkha hnutchhiah ah pawh an inzawmna awmchhun chu ‘silaimu chauh a ni ta’ tiin Ramliani hian a ziak nghe nghe a ni. Sanglura ta ni kumkhua turin amah Sanglura a awm tawh loh hnuah pawh he silaimu hian hna a thawh chhunzawm zel a, Ramliani hian Sanglura tel lo chuan thawnthu leh chanchin sawi tur a nei tawh lova, mihring nunphung pangngai a zawh hlei thei ta lo reng a ni.

Mipa kutchhuak thawnthuah hian hmeichhiate hi mipate lawmna leh hlimna thlentu anga tarlan an ni tlangpui ṭhin. Virginia Woolf-i chuan , ‘Men have tended to write about women as sexual and romantic objects, even Shakespeare’s heroines are generally important as characters through their relationship with men’, tiin a lo sawi a. Ramliani pawh hian Sanglura tel lo chuan nun awmze nei a nei thei lova, chanchin ngaihnawm sawi tur a nei lova, he thawnthu innghahna ber chu Sanglura thih hnu a a khawhar zia leh atana a rinawmzia hi a ni deuh ber mai. Ramliani khan indona leh silaimute ngaihnawm a ti ngai lova, Sanglura hriatchhuah tirtu a nih avang erawh chuan ‘…indona silai lo ri leh turte chu ka tan chuan lung tilengtu a tling tawh ang a, silai leh a mu pawhin ka rilru a tithar kumkhua tawh dawn zawng a nih hi…’ a ti hial a ni. Ramliani hian a hmeichhe rilru puthmang leh nihna te, a duhzawng leh hlauh zawng thleng hian Sanglura vangin a thlak danglam vek a ni ber mai. Hlutna a tehna te, a thil thlir dan leh thutlukna a siam zawng zawng hi Sanglura nena inkungkaih vek a lo ni zo ta a, hei hian patriarchal society-a hmeichhe dinhmun leh nihna a tarlang chiang viau awm e.

He thawnthu hming Silaimu Ngaihawm tih pawh hi Ramliani nun leh dinhmun aṭanga teh chuan silaimu ngaihawm a ni thei hauh lo mai. Sanglura hriatchhuah tirtu, a aiawhtu, Sanglura nula a ni tih hriatchhuah tir fotu a ni ngei anga, a duh leh hmangaih ber denghlumtu silaimu hi Ramliani tan chuan silaimu azawnga silaimu rapthlak ber ni zawk awm tak a ni. Mahse thil ngaihawm ber anga tarlan a ni mauh mai thung. Ramliani ngeiin a ṭhiannu Chalkimi hnenah, “…he silaimu hian den dan dangin min denghlum ve dawn ta a nih hi…” a tih ang chiah hian Sanglura thih hnuah pawh he silaimu hian Sanglura tan a thlung nghet tlat a, amah sun leh ngaiin he nula hi a thi ta nge nge a ni.

Betty Friedan-i chuan “Women’s unhappiness is a problem that has no name”, tiin a lo sawi a. Hmeichhe lungngaihna hi hming nei lo harsatna a ni e tihna a ni awm e. Silaimu Ngaihawm thawnthu-ah pawh hian Ramliani tawrhna hi hmangaihna vang a ni a, eng vanga chuti taka tuar nge a nih a, eng vanga thih phah ta hial nge a nih tih erawh sawi lan a ni lem lo. Sanglura thih hnu khan a hlim lova, chaw a ei thei lo tial tial a, a rawp ral ta tih kha a thih tak dan chu a ni mai a. Sanglura a hmangaihna a nasat em vang leh a tel lova nunin awmzia a neih loh vanga ngaih ngei tur a ni ang. Eng vanga Sanglura tel lova nung thei ta lo nge tih leh dam chhan tur reng reng nei ta lo nia inhre ta tlat nge a nih? Hmeichhe hlutna leh sang ber chu nulat thianghlimna (virginity) hi a ni ngei ang. Chu a hlutna chu Sanglura a lo hlan tawh a, zahawmna nei tawh lo leh midang tana nupui tlak tawh loa a inngaih vang a ni thei. Amah a inhmuh danah Ramliani khan Sanglura ta niin a inngai nghet tlat tawh a, midang nei turin nulate hlutna a hloh tawh nia inhria in midang a hnar ta vek a ni thei bawk.

Ramliani khan vawikhat mai thihna a tawk lova, a taksa a thih hma daih khan a rilru leh ngaihtuahna a vuiliam daih tawh niin a lang. Sanglura a hmangaih aṭang khan ṭha a tih ang leh a duhdanin a nung thei tawh lova, a ngaihdan ni lovin Sanglura ngaihdan a ṭawm a ngai zawk fova, a hmeichhe rilru leh nihna a hloh hret hret a, chung zawng zawng chu hmangaihna hming vuahin mawi taka tuam a ni si a. Sanglura’n a thihsan leh tak hnuah phei chuan amah Ramliani kai tho leh turin a nulat thianghlimna (a hlutna) a lo hloh tawh si a, amah thununtu Sanglura aiawh turin silaimu kha a hmang ta a, rinawmna hming vuahin a taksa pawh a rawp ral ve ta mai a ni. Ramliani kha a chhungte pawhin a at mai an hlau hial a, a nun hlim lo kha a zual zel a, a nuphung pangngai a hloh nasa tial tial a, chaw a ei thei lo tial tial a, a thi ta a ni. Hmeichhe ṭha leh fel te mizia tura ngaih idealised stereotype character te hi tuartu leh harsatna leh vanduaina tawktu (protagonist) an ni fova, chhanchhuaktu tur mipa an tawng lo a nih phei chuan an thih phah fo ṭhin. Chutianga dawhtheihna, rinawmna etc. avanga tuartu leh thihna hial tawkte thihna chu thihna chhuanawm (honour death) a la ni fan a, mahni dikna leh damkhawchhuahna tur a beih let chiam chu hmeichhe ṭha zia tura ngaih a ni leh thung si lo. Ramliani pawh hi hmeichhe fel leh ṭha tawpkhawk, a hmangaihna avanga mipa tana rinawm tluantling, mipa tel lova engmah ti thei lo leh nun awmze nei lo khawpa nula invawng thianghlim thei, mipa duhthusama din character khawngaihthlak tak a ni tih tur a ni mai awm e.

References:

Beavouir, Simone de. The Second Sex, New York: Penguin Books, 1984.
Dokhuma, James. Silaimu Ngaihawm, Aizawl:
Friedan, Betty. The Feminine Mystique, New York: W.W.Norton, 1963.
Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One’s Own, Penguin Books, 1967rpt.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!